Birds of the Western Palearctic

. . . being a bibliography of bird species of the western Palearctic region, comprising the protonyms and currently valid scientific names referenced comprehensively, including some synonyms.

The list combines the species listed by the Dutch Birding Bird Names document (Commissie Systematiek Nederlandse Avifauna, 2021) with taxonomic systematics of IOC World Bird List (edited by Gill et al., 2021).

. . . a work in progress.

Any errors and solecisms are entirely my own.


STRUTHIONIDAE Vigors, 1825

Strutionidæ Nicholas Aylward Vigors. “Observations on the Natural Affinities That Connect the Orders and Families of Birds.” Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 14, pt. 3 (1825): 395–517, 413.

Struthio Linnaeus, 1758

Struthio Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th ed. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:155.

Struthio camelus Linnaeus, 1758 Common Ostrich

[Struthio] Camelus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th ed. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:155.

ANATIDAE Leach, 1820

Anatidæ W. E. Leach. Synopsis of the Contents of the British Museum. 17th ed. London: Richard and Arthur Taylor, 1820:68*.

Dendrocygna Swainson, 1837

Dendrocygna William Swainson. On the Natural History and Classification of Birds. The Cabinet Cyclopædia, vol. 92, edited by Dionysius Lardner. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, and John Taylor, 1837, 2:365.

Dendrocygna bicolor (Vieillot, 1816) Fulvous Whistling Duck

Anas bicolor Louis Pierre Vieillot. “Le Canard roux et noir, Anas bicolor, Vieill.” In Nouveau dictionnaire d’histoire naturelle, appliquée aux arts, à l’agriculture, à l’économie rurale et domestique, à la médecine, etc., edited by Société de naturalistes et d’agriculteurs. Paris: Deterville, 1816, 5:136.

Dendrocygna bicolor J. A. Allen, Charles W. Richmond, William Brewster, Jonathan Dwight Jr. [Jonathan Dwight V], C. Hart Merriam, Robert Ridgway and Witmer Stone. “Fourteenth Supplement to the American Ornithologists’ Union Check-list of North American Birds.” Auk 25, no. 3 (1908): 343–399, 362.

Dendrocygna javanica (Horsfield, 1821) Lesser Whistling Duck

Anas Javanica Thomas Horsfield. “Systematic Arrangement and Description of Birds from the Island of Java.” Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 13, pt. 1 (1821): 133–200, 199.

D[endrocygna] javanica T. C. Jerdon. The Birds of India: Being a Natural History of All the Birds Known to Inhabit Continental India, with Descriptions of the Species, Genera, Families, Tribes, and Orders, and a Brief Notice of Such Families As Are Not Found in India, Making It a Manual of Ornithology Specially Adapted for India. Calcutta: George Wyman, 1864, 3:789.

Branta Scopoli, 1769

Branta Ioannis Antonii Scopoli [Giovanni Antonio Scopoli]. Annus I historico-naturalis. Descriptiones avium musei proprii earumque rariorum, quas vidit in vivario augustiis imperatoris, et in museo excell. comitis Francisci Annib. Turriani. Lipsiæ [Leipzig]: Christ. Gottlob Hilscheri, 1769:67.

Branta bernicla (Linnaeus, 1758) Brant Goose

[Anas] Bernicla Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:124.

[Branta] bernicla H. M. Bannister. “A Sketch of the Classification of American Anserinæ.” Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia [22], Nov. 1870:130–132, 131.

B. b. nigricans (Lawrence, 1846)

Anser nigricans George N. Lawrence. “Description of a New Species of Anser.” Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York 4, no. 6–7 (1846): 171–172, 171, pl. 12.

[Branta bernicla] var. nigricans Elliott Coues. Key to North American Birds: Containing a Concise Account of Every Species of Living and Fossil Bird at Present Known from the Continent North of the Mexican and United States Boundary. Salem, MA: Naturalists’ Agency, 1872:284, fig. 184b.

B. b. bernicla (Linnaeus, 1758)

B. b. hrota (Müller, 1776)

Anas Hrota Othone Friderico Müller [Otto Friedrich Müller]. Zoologiae Danicae prodromus; seu, Animalium daniae et norvegiae indigenarum characteres, nomina, et synonyma imprimis popularium. Hafniæ [Copenhagen]: Typis Hallageriis, 1776:14.

Branta bernicla hrota James Lee Peters. Check-list of Birds of the World. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1931, 1:149.

Branta ruficollis (Pallas, 1769) Red-breasted Goose

Anser ruficollis P. S. Pallas. Spicilegia zoologica, quibus novae imprimis et obscurae animalium species iconibus, descriptionibus atque commentariis illustrantur. Berolini [Berlin]: Gottl. August. Lange, 1769, fasc. 6, 21, pl. 4. (Collated and republished in P. S. Pallas. Spicilegia zoologica. Berolini [Berlin]: Gottl. August. Lange, 1774, 1: fasc. 6, 21, pl. 4.)

Branta ruficollis Tommaso Salvadori. “Elenco degli uccelli italiani.” Annali del Museo civico di storia naturale di Genova 23, 2nd ser., 3 (1886): 5–302, 254.

Branta canadensis (Linnaeus, 1758) Canada Goose

[Anas] canadensis Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:123.

Branta canadensis H. M. Bannister. “A Sketch of the Classification of American Anserinæ.” Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia [22], Nov. 1870:130–132, 131.

B. c. parvipes (Cassin, 1852)

Anser parvipes John Cassin. “Descriptions of New Species of Birds, Specimens of Which Are in the Collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.” Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 6, no. 5 (1862): 184–188, 187.

[Branta canadensis] parvipes John. W. Aldrich. “Speciation in the White-cheeked Geese.” Wilson Bulletin 58, no. 1 (1946): 94–103, 96.

B. c. interior Todd, 1938

Branta canadensis interior W. E. Clyde Todd. “A New Eastern Race of the Canada Goose.” Auk 55, no. 4 (1938): 661–662, 662.

B. c. canadensis (Linnaeus, 1758)

Branta leucopsis (Bechstein, 1803) Barnacle Goose

Anas leucopsis Johann Matthäus Bechstein. Ornithologisches Taschenbuch von und für Deutschland; oder, Kurze Beschreibung aller Vögel Deutschlands für Liebhaber dieses Theils der Naturgeschichte. Leipzig : Carl Friedrich Enoch Richter, 1803, pt. 2:424.

[Branta] canadensis H. M. Bannister. “A Sketch of the Classification of American Anserinæ.” Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia [22], Nov. 1870:130–132, 131.

Branta hutchinsii (Richardson, 1832) Cackling Goose

Anser Hutchinsii John Richardson. “Anser Hutchinsii (Richards.) Hutchin’s Barnacle Goose.” In Fauna boreali-americana; or, The Zoology of the Northern Parts of British America: Containing Descriptions of the Objects of Natural History Collected on the Late Northern Land Expeditions under Command of Captain Sir John Franklin, R.N. Pt. 2, The Birds, by William Swainson and John Richardson. London: John Murray, “1831” [1832]: 470.

[Branta] hutchinsii H. M. Bannister. “A Sketch of the Classification of American Anserinæ.” Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia [22], Nov. 1870:130–132, 131.

B. h. minima Ridgway, 1885

Branta minima Robert Ridgway. “Note on the Anser leucopareius of Brandt.” Proceedings of the United States National Museum 8, no. 475, no. 2 (1885): 21–22, 22.

Branta hutchinsii minima John. W. Aldrich. “Speciation in the White-cheeked Geese.” Wilson Bulletin 58, no. 1 (1946): 94–103, 95.

B. h. taverneri Delacour, 1951

Branta hutchinsii taverni Jean Delacour. “Preliminary Note on the Taxonomy of Canada Geese, Branta canadensis.” American Museum Novitates, no. 1537 (1951): 1–10, 7.

B. h. hutchinsii (Richardson, 1832)

Anser Brisson, 1760

Anser M. J. Brisson. Ornithologie; ou, Méthode contenant la division des oiseaux en ordres, sections, genres, especes & leurs variétés. A laquelle on a joint une description exacte de chaque espece, avec les citations des auteurs qui en ont traité, les noms quils leur ont donnés, ceux que leur ont donnés les différentes nations, & les noms vulgaires = Ornithologia; sive, Synopsis methodica sistens avium divisionem in ordines, sectiones, genera, species, ipsarumque varietates. Cum accurata cujusque speciei descriptione, citacionibus auctorum de iis tractantium, nominibus eis ab ipsis & nationibus impositis, nominibusque vulgaribus. Paris: Cl. Jean-Baptiste Bauche, 1760, 1:58, 6:261.

Anser indicus (Latham, 1790) Bar-headed Goose

[Anas] indica Joannis Latham [John Latham]. Index ornithologicus; sive, Systema ornithologiæ, complectens avium divisionem in classes, ordines, genera, species, ipsarumque varietates, adjectis synonymis, locis, descriptionibus, &c. Londini [London]: published by author, 1790, 2:839.

Anser Indica James Francis Stephens. General Zoology; or, Systematic Natural History, Commenced by the Late George Shaw M.D. F.R.S. Vol. 12, pt. 2, Birds. London: J. and A. Arch; Longman, Hurst; E. Jeffery and Son; J. Mawman; Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy; J. Booth; Sherwood; G. B. Whittaker; R. Scholey; S. Bagster; Rodwell and Martin; R. Saunders; Hamilton, Adams; Simpkin and Marshall; J. Duncan; T. and J. Allman; C. Smith; G. Wightman, 1824:36.

[Anser] indicus [Hinrich Lichtenstein]. Nomenclator avium Musei zoologici berolinensis = Namenverzeichniss der in der zoologischen Sammlung der Königlichen Universität zu Berlin aufgestellten Arten von Vögeln nach den in der neueren Systematik am meisten zur Geltung gekommenen Namen der Gattungen und ihrer Unterabtheilungen. Berlin: Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1854:101.

Anser rossii Cassin, 1861 Ross’s Goose

Anser Rossii J. Cassin. “Communication in Reference to a New Species of Goose from Arctic America.” Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 13, [no. 1?] (1861): 72–73, 73.

Anser caerulescens (Linnaeus, 1758) Snow Goose

[Anas] cærulescens Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:124.

A[nser] Cærulescens [P. J.] Bonnaterre. Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature. Ornithologie. Paris: Panckoucke, 1790, livr. 37: pl. 32, fig. 1; 1791, livr. 47:115 (text). (Collated and republished in [P. J.] Bonnaterre and L. P. Vieillot. Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature. Ornithologie. Paris: Mme. veuve Agasse, 1823, pt. 1:115; [pt. 4] Planches: pl. 32, fig. 1.)

Anser anser (Linnaeus, 1758) Greylag Goose

[Anas] Anser Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:123.

Anas [(Anser)] anser R. P. Lesson. Traité d’ornithologie; ou, Tableau méthodique des ordres, sous-ordres, familles, tribus, genres, sous-genres et races d’oiseaux. Ouvrage entièrement neuf, formant le catalogue le plus complet des espèces réunies dans les collections publiques de la France. Paris: F. G. Levrault, 1831, livr. 8:628. (Collated and republished in Traité d’ornithologie; ou, Tableau méthodique des ordres, sous-ordres, familles, tribus, genres, sous-genres et races d’oiseaux. Ouvrage entièrement neuf, formant le catalogue le plus complet des espèces réunies dans les collections publiques de la France. Paris: F. G. Levrault, 1831, 1:628.)

Anser anser Ernst Hartert. Katalog der Vogelsammlung in Museum der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Frankfurt am Main. Frankfurt am Main: Gebrüder Knauer, 1891:226.

Anser fabalis (Latham, 1787) Taiga Bean Goose

[Anas] Fabalis John Latham. Supplement to the General Synopsis of Birds. London: Leigh and Sotheby, 1787:297 (name).

Anser fabalis T. Salvadori. Catalogue of the Chenomorphæ (Palamedeæ, Phœnicopteri, Anseres), Crypturi, and Ratitæ in the Collection of the British Museum. Catalogue of the Birds of the British Museum, vol. 27. London: Trustees [of the British Museum (Natural History)], 1895:99.

A. f. fabalis (Latham, 1787)

A. f. middendorffii Severtsov, 1873

Anser Middendorffii N. A. Severtsov. “Вертикальное и горизонтальное распределение Туркестанских животных” [Vertical and horizontal distribution of Turkestan fauna]. Известия Императорском общества любителей естествознания, антропологии и этнографии [News of the Imperial Society of Devotees of Natural History, Anthropology and Ethnography] 8, no. 2 (1873): 70 (table), 149 (text).

Anser middendorffi H. E. Dresser. “Notes on Severtzoff’s ‘Fauna of Turkestan’ (Turkestanskie Jevotnie) [Part 6].” Translated by H. E. Dresser and Carl Craemers. Ibis, 3rd ser., vol. 6, no. 24 (1876): 410–421, 416. (Translation of Severtsov 1873. Name misspelt consistently, most likely due to translator’s error.)

Anser Middendorfi N. A. Severtsov” rel=”noopener” target=”_blank”>N. A. Severtsoff [N. A. Severtsov]. “Faune des vertébrés du Turkestan.” Translated by Léon Olphe Galliard. Zeitschrift für die gesammte Ornithologie 4, nos. 1–2 (1887): 1–141, 140. (Translation of Severtsov 1873. Name misspelt, most likely due to translator’s error.)

Ans[er] Middendorfii N. A. Severtsov” rel=”noopener” target=”_blank”>N. A. Severtsoff [N. A. Severtsov]. “Faune des vertébrés du Turkestan.” Translated by Léon Olphe Galliard. Zeitschrift für die gesammte Ornithologie 4, nos. 1–2 (1887): 1–141, 140. (Translation of Severtsov 1873. Name misspelt, most likely due to translator’s error.)

Anser fabalis middendorffii Paul A. Johnsgard. “Order Anseriformes.” In Check-list of Birds of the World, edited by Ernst Mayr and G. William Cottrell. 2nd ed. Cambridge, MA: Museum of Comparative Zoology, 1979, 1:436.

Anser brachyrhynchus Baillon, 1834 Pink-footed Goose

[Anser] Brachyrhynchus L. A. F. Baillon. “Catalogue des Mammiferes, Oiseaux, Reptiles, Poissons et Mollusques testacés marins, observés dans l’arrondissementd’Abbeville.” Mémoires de la Société royale d’émulation d’Abbeville, 2nd ser., 1 (“1833” [1834]): 49–80, 74.

Anser serrirostris Gould, 1852 Tundra Bean Goose

Anser serrirostris John Gould. “On a New Species of Goose from China, Collected by the Late Lieut. Ince at Shanghai.” Literary Gazette and Journal of the Belles Lettres, Science and Art, no. 1836 (1852): 306.

Anser albifrons (Scopoli, 1769) Greater White-fronted Goose

Branta albifrons Ioannis Antonii Scopoli [Giovanni Antonio Scopoli]. Annus I historico-naturalis. Descriptiones avium musei proprii earumque rariorum, quas vidit in vivario augustiis imperatoris, et in museo excell. comitis Francisci Annib. Turriani. Lipsiæ [Leipzig]: Christ. Gottlob Hilscheri, 1769:69.

Anser albifrons Johann Matthäus Bechstein. Gemeinnützige Naturgeschichte Deutschlands nach allen drey Reichen. Ein Handbuch zur deutlichern und vollständigern Selbstbelehrung besonders für Forstmänner, Jugendlehrer und Oekonomen. 2nd ed. Leipzig: Fr. Chr. Wilh. Vogel, 1809, Bd. 4, Abt. 2:898, pl. 36 fig 2.

A. a. flavirostris Dalgety & Scott, 1948

Anser albifrons flavirostris C. T. Dalgety and Peter Scott. “A New Race of the Whitefronted Goose.” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 68, no. 6 (1948): 109–121, 115.

A. a. albifrons (Scopoli, 1769)

Anser erythropus (Linnaeus, 1758) Lesser White-fronted Goose

[Anas] erythropus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:123.

Anser erythropus Alfred Newton. “Remarks on the Anas (Anser) erythropus of Linnæus.” Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pt. 28, no. 438 (1860): 339–341, 341.

Cygnus Garsault, 1764

Cygnus [François Alexandre Pierre] de Garsault. Les figures des plantes et animaux d’usage en medecine, décrits dans la Matiere Medicale de Geoffroy Medecin. Paris: published by author, [1764], pl. 688.

Cygnus atratus (Latham, 1790) Black Swan

[Anas] atrata Joannis Latham [John Latham]. Index ornithologicus; sive, Systema ornithologiæ, complectens avium divisionem in classes, ordines, genera, species, ipsarumque varietates, adjectis synonymis, locis, descriptionibus, &c. Londini [London]: published by author, 1790:2:834.

Cygnus atratus James Francis Stephens. General Zoology; or, Systematic Natural History, Commenced by the Late George Shaw M.D. F.R.S. Vol. 12, pt. 2, Birds. London: J. and A. Arch; Longman, Hurst; E. Jeffery and Son; J. Mawman; Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy; J. Booth; Sherwood; G. B. Whittaker; R. Scholey; S. Bagster; Rodwell and Martin; R. Saunders; Hamilton, Adams; Simpkin and Marshall; J. Duncan; T. and J. Allman; C. Smith; G. Wightman, 1824:18.

Cygnus olor (Gmelin, 1789) Mute Swan

[Anas] Olor Jo. Fridr. Gmelin. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species: cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, by Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. 13th edn., edited by Jo. Frid. Gmelin. Lugduni [Lyon]: J. B. Delamolliere, 1789, 1, pt. 2:502.

Cygnus olor A. Risso. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes Maritimes. Paris: F.-G. Levrault, 1826, 3:81.

Cygnus columbianus (Ord, 1815) Whistling Swan

Anas Columbianus George Ord. “Zoology of North America.” In A New Geographical, Historical, and Commercial Grammar, and Present State of the Several Kingdoms of the World, by William Guthrie. 2nd rev. ed. Philadelphia: Johnson and Warner, 2:315–361, 319.

Cygnus (Olor) columbianus Elliott Coues (ed.). History of the Expedition under the Command of Lewis and Clark, to the Sources of the Missouri River, Thence across the Rocky Mountains and down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean, Performed during the Years 1804–5–6, by Order of the Government of the United States. New York: F. P. Harper, 1893, 3:885, 885n89.

C. c. columbianus (Ord, 1815)

C. c. bewickii Yarrell, 1830

Cygnus Bewickii William Yarrell. “Cygnus Bewickii.” In “Proceedings of Learned Societies. Linnæan Society,” by Richard Taylor and Richard Phillips. Philosophical Magazine, n.s., 7, no. 38 (1830): 146.

Cygnus columbianus bewickii J. Delacour. “The Swans.” Avicultural Magazine 54, no. 6 (1948): 180–185, 182.

Cygnus cygnus (Linnaeus, 1758) Whooper Swan

[Anas] Cygnus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:122.

Cygnus (Olor) cygnus George Robert Gray. Hand-list of Genera and Species of Birds, Distinguishing Those Contained in the British Museum. Pt. 3, Struthiones, Grallæ, and Anseres, with Indices of Generic and Specific Names. London: Trustees [of the British Museum], 1871:78

Plectropterus Stephens, 1824

Plectropterus James Francis Stephens General Zoology; or, Systematic Natural History, Commenced by the Late George Shaw M.D. F.R.S. Vol. 12, pt. 2, Birds. London: J. and A. Arch; Longman, Hurst; E. Jeffery and Son; J. Mawman; Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy; J. Booth; Sherwood; G. B. Whittaker; R. Scholey; S. Bagster; Rodwell and Martin; R. Saunders; Hamilton, Adams; Simpkin and Marshall; J. Duncan; T. and J. Allman; C. Smith; G. Wightman, 1824:6.

Plectropterus gambensis (Linnaeus, 1766) Spur-winged Goose

[Anas] gambensis Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 12th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1766, 1:195.

Plectropterus gambensis J. F. Stephens General Zoology; or, Systematic Natural History, Commenced by the Late George Shaw M.D. F.R.S. Vol. 12, pt. 2, Birds. London: J. and A. Arch; Longman, Hurst; E. Jeffery and Son; J. Mawman; Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy; J. Booth; Sherwood; G. B. Whittaker; R. Scholey; S. Bagster; Rodwell and Martin; R. Saunders; Hamilton, Adams; Simpkin and Marshall; J. Duncan; T. and J. Allman; C. Smith; G. Wightman, 1824:7.

Sarkidiornis Eyton, 1838

Sarkidiornis T. C. Eyton. A Monograph on the Anatidae, or Duck Tribe. London: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman; Shrewsbury: Eddowes, 1838:20.

Sarkidiornis melanotos (Pennant, 1769) Knob-billed Duck

Anser melanotos Thomas Pennant. Indian Zoology. London: [published by author?], 1769:12, pl. 11.

Sarkidiornis melanotus G. Hartlaub. Review of Systematische Uebersicht der Vögel Nord-Ost-Afrika’s nebst Abbildung und Beschreibung von 50 Theils unbekannten, Theils noch nicht bildlich dargestellten Arten, by E. Rüppell. Isis von Oken, Jrg. 1846, Heft 7 (1846): cols. 483–489, col. 489.

S[arcidiornis] melanotus Edward Blyth. Catalogue of the Birds in the Museum Asiatic Society. Calcutta: [Asiatic] Society, “1849” [1852]: 302.

Sarkidiornis melanotos A. E. Brehm “Blätter aus meinem ornithologischen Tagebuche [Part 6].” Journal für Ornithologie, 5, Heft 5, no. 29 (1857): 377–384, 377.

Alopochen Stejneger, 1885

Alopochen Leonhard Stejneger. Natural History of Birds. Vol. 4 of The Standard Natural History, edited by J. S. Kingsley. Boston: S. E. Cassino, 1885:141.

Alopochen aegyptiaca (Linnaeus, 1766) Egyptian Goose

[Anas] ægyptiaca Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 12th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1766, 1:197.

Alopochen aegyptiacaLeonhard Stejneger. Natural History of Birds. Vol. 4 of The Standard Natural History, edited by J. S. Kingsley. Boston: S. E. Cassino, 1885:141.

Tadorna Boie, 1822

Tadorna F. Boie. Tagebuch gehalten auf einer Reise durch Norwegen im Jahre 1817, edited by H. Boie. Schleswig: Königliches Taubstummen Institut, 1822:140 (narr.), 351 (syn.).

Tadorna tadorna (Linnaeus, 1758) Common Shelduck

[Anas] Tadorna Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:122.

Tadorna tadorna H. Schlegel. Kritische Übersicht der europäischen Vögel = Revue critique des oiseaux d’Europe. Leiden: A. Arnz, 1844:115.

Tadorna ferruginea (Pallas, 1764) Ruddy Shelduck

Anas ferruginea P.S. Pallas. “Adumbratiunculae avium variarum præcedenti elencho insertarum, sed quae in Systemate naturæ illustr. Linnæi nondum extant.” [Sketches of various birds inserted in the previous list, absent from the Systema naturae of Linneaus.] In Beredeneerde catalogus, van eene, bij uitstek fraayeen weergalooze verzameling, zoo van inlandsche als uitheemsche vogelen, viervoetige en gekorvene dieren. Zynde alle op het konstigste in derzelver natuurlykster standen, aart en houding, opgevult, opgezet, en, op eene byzondere wyze, voor alle bederf beveiligt, by A. Vroeg. ‘s Gravenhage: Pieter van Os, 1764:5.

Tadorna ferruginea S. A. Buturlin. “Bemerkungen über die geographische Verbreitung der Vögel im nordöstlichen Sibirien.” Translated by O. Haase. Journal für Ornithologie 56, no. 2 (1908): 282–294, 285.

Aix Boie, 1828

Aix F. Boie. “Bemerkungen über mehrere neue Vogelgattungen.” Isis von Oken 21, Heft 3 (1828): cols. 312–329, col. 329.

Aix sponsa (Linnaeus, 1758) Wood Duck

[Anas] Sponsa Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:128.

Aix sponsa Charles Lucian Bonaparte [Charles Lucien Bonaparte]. A Geographical and Comparative List of the Birds of Europe and North America. London: John Van Voorst, 1838:57.

Aix galericulata (Linnaeus, 1758) Mandarin Duck

[Anas] galericulata Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:128.

Aix galericulata Carlo L. Bonaparte [Charles L. Bonaparte]. “Introduzioneaala class ii. uccelli.” In Iconografia della fauna italica per le quattro classi degli animali vertebrati. Vol. 1, Mammiferi e uccelli. Roma [Rome]: Tipografia Salviucci, 1841: [9]

Nettapus Brandt, 1836

Nettapus Joanne Friderico Brandt [Johann Friedrich von Brandt]. Aves. Fasc. 1 of Descriptiones et icones animalium rossicorum novorum vel minus rite cognitorum. Petropoli [Saint Petersburg]: Academiae scientiarum, 1836:5.

Nettapus coromandelianus (Gmelin, 1789) Cotton Pygmy Goose

Anas coromandeliana Jo. Fridr. Gmelin. “[Anas] coromandelianus.” In Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, by Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. 13th edn., edited by Jo. Frid. Gmelin. Lugduni [Lyon]: J. B. Delamolliere, 1789, 1, pt. 2:522.

Nettapus Coromandelianus [John Edward Gray]. Gallinæ, Grallæ, and Anseres. Pt. 2, sect. 2 of List of the Specimen of Birds in the Collection of the British Museum. London: Trustees [of the British Museum], 1844:129.

Sibirionetta Boetticher, 1929

Sibirionetta Hans von Boetticher. “Kritische Betrachtungen über Anatiden.” Anzeiger der ornithologischen Gesellschaft Bayerns, Bd. 2, no. 1 (1929): 10–15, 14 (text), 15 (descr.).

Sibirionetta formosa (Georgi, 1775) Baikal Teal

Anas formosa Joh. Gottl. Georgi. Bemerkungen einer Reise im Russischen Reich im Jahre 1772. Vol. 1 of Bemerkungen einer Reise im Russischen Reich in den Jahren 1772, 1773 und 1774. St. Peterburg: Kayserliche Academie der Wissenschaften, 1775:168.

Sibirionetta formosa Edward C. Dickinson and J. V. Remsen Jr. “Sibirionetta formosa“. In The Howard and Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World. Vol. 1, Non–passerines. 4th Edition. Eastbourne: Aves Press, 2013: ??. Republished online. Accessed 5 May 2021. <https://www.aviansystematics.org/4th-edition-checklist?viewfamilies=14>.

Spatula Boie, 1822

Spatula F. Boie. “Ueber Classification, insonderheit der europäischen Vögel.” Isis von Oken, Jg. 1822, Heft 5 (1822): cols. 545–564, 564.

Spatula querquedula (Linnaeus, 1758) Garganey

[Anas] Querquedula Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:126.

Spatula querquedula Edward C. Dickinson and J. V. Remsen Jr. “Spatula querquedula“. In The Howard and Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World. Vol. 1, Non–passerines. 4th Edition. Eastbourne: Aves Press, 2013: ??. Republished online. Accessed 5 May 2021. <https://www.aviansystematics.org/4th-edition-checklist?viewfamilies=14>.

Spatula cyanoptera (Vieillot, 1816) Cinnamon Teal

Anas cyanoptera Louis Pierre Vieillot. “Le Canard aux ailes bleues, Anas cyanoptera, Vieill.” In Nouveau dictionnaire d’histoire naturelle, appliquée aux arts, à l’agriculture, à l’économie rurale et domestique, à la médecine, etc., edited by Société de naturalistes et d’agriculteurs. Paris: Deterville, 1816, 5:104.

Spatula cyanoptera J. Dewey Soper. “Gleanings from the Canadian West – Part 1: Avian Fauna of Islay, Alberta.” Canadian Field-naturalist 35, no. 3 (1921): 50–54, 51. [“Shoveller Duck (Spatula cyanoptera)”, error?]

Spatula cyanoptera Edward C. Dickinson and J. V. Remsen Jr. “Spatula cyanoptera“. In The Howard and Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World. Vol. 1, Non–passerines. 4th Edition. Eastbourne: Aves Press, 2013: ??. Republished online. Accessed 5 May 2021. <https://www.aviansystematics.org/4th-edition-checklist?viewfamilies=14>.

Spatula discors (Linnaeus, 1766) Blue-winged Teal

[Anas] discors Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 12th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1766, 1:205.

Spatula discors Edward C. Dickinson and J. V. Remsen Jr. “Spatula discors“. In The Howard and Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World. Vol. 1, Non–passerines. 4th Edition. Eastbourne: Aves Press, 2013: ??. Republished online. Accessed 5 May 2021. <https://www.aviansystematics.org/4th-edition-checklist?viewfamilies=14>.

Spatula clypeata (Linnaeus, 1758) Northern Shoveler

[Anas] clypeata Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:124.

Spatula clypeata F. Boie “Ueber Classification, insonderheit der europäischen Vögel.” Isis von Oken, Heft 5 (1822): cols. 545–564, col. 564.

Mareca Stephens, 1824

Mareca J. F. Stephens General Zoology; or, Systematic Natural History, Commenced by the Late George Shaw M.D. F.R.S. Vol. 12, pt. 2, Birds. London: J. and A. Arch; Longman, Hurst; E. Jeffery and Son; J. Mawman; Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy; J. Booth; Sherwood; G. B. Whittaker; R. Scholey; S. Bagster; Rodwell and Martin; R. Saunders; Hamilton, Adams; Simpkin and Marshall; J. Duncan; T. and J. Allman; C. Smith; G. Wightman, 1824:130.

Mareca strepera (Linnaeus, 1758) Gadwall

[Anas] strepera Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:125.

Mareca strepera Bradley C. Livezey. “A Phylogenetic Classification of Waterfowl (Aves: Anseriformes), Including Selected Fossil Species.” Annals of the Carnegie Museum 66, no. 4 (1997): 457–496, 477.

Mareca falcata (Georgi, 1775) Falcated Duck

Anas falcata Joh. Gottl. Georgi. Bemerkungen einer Reise im Russischen Reich im Jahre 1772. Vol. 1 of Bemerkungen einer Reise im Russischen Reich in den Jahren 1772, 1773 und 1774. St. Peterburg: Kayserliche Academie der Wissenschaften, 1775:167.

Mareca falcata John Cassin. “Birds.” In Narrative of the Expedition of an American Squadron to the China Seas and Japan, Performed in the Years 1852, 1853 and 1854, by M. C. Perry. U.S. Senate Ex. Document No. 79, 33rd Congress, 2nd Session (1856), 2:231.

Mareca penelope Eurasian Wigeon (Linnaeus, 1758)

[Anas] Penelope Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:126.

Mareca penelope Prideaux John Selby. Illustrations of British Ornithology. Vol. 2, Water Birds. Edinburgh: W. H. Lizars, 1833:324

Mareca americana American Wigeon (Gmelin, 1789)

[Anas] americana Jo. Fridr. Gmelin. “Anas americana.” In Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, by Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. 13th edn., edited by Jo. Frid. Gmelin. Lugduni [Lyon]: J. B. Delamolliere, 1789, 1, pt. 2:526.

Mareca Americana James Francis Stephens. General Zoology; or, Systematic Natural History, Commenced by the Late George Shaw M.D. F.R.S. Vol. 12, pt. 2, Birds. London: J. and A. Arch; Longman, Hurst; E. Jeffery and Son; J. Mawman; Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy; J. Booth; Sherwood; G. B. Whittaker; R. Scholey; S. Bagster; Rodwell and Martin; R. Saunders; Hamilton, Adams; Simpkin and Marshall; J. Duncan; T. and J. Allman; C. Smith; G. Wightman, 1824:135.

Anas Linnaeus, 1758

Anas Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:122.

Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus, 1758 Mallard

[Anas] platyrhynchos Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:125.

Anas rubripes Brewster, 1902 American Black Duck

Anas obscura rubripes William Brewster. “An Undescribed Form of the Black Duck (Anas obscura).” Auk 19, no. 2 (1902): 183–188, 184.

A[nas] rubripes Chester A. Reed. Bird Guide: Water Birds, Game Birds and Birds of Prey East of the Rockies. Toronto: Musson, 1906:79.

Anas capensis Gmelin, 1789 Cape Teal

[Anas] capensis Jo. Fridr. Gmelin. “Anas capensis.” In Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, by Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. 13th edn., edited by Jo. Frid. Gmelin. Lugduni [Lyon]: J. B. Delamolliere, 1789, 1, pt. 2:527.

Anas erythrorhyncha Gmelin, 1789 Red-billed Teal

[Anas] erythrorhyncha Jo. Fridr. Gmelin. “Anas erythrorhyncha.” In Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, by Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. 13th edn., edited by Jo. Frid. Gmelin. Lugduni [Lyon]: J. B. Delamolliere, 1789, 1, pt. 2:517.

Anas acuta Linnaeus, 1758 Northern Pintail

[Anas] acuta Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:126.

Anas crecca Linnaeus, 1758 Eurasian Teal

[Anas] Crecca Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:126.

Anas carolinensis Gmelin, 1789 Green-winged Teal

[Anas] carolinensis Jo. Fridr. Gmelin. “Anas georgica.” In Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, by Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. 13th edn., edited by Jo. Frid. Gmelin. Lugduni [Lyon]: J. B. Delamolliere, 1789, 1, pt. 2:533.

Marmaronetta Reichenbach, 1853

Marmaronetta L. Reichenbach. “Die Vögel. The Birds. Aves. Les oiseaux – Systema avium.” In Avium systema nature. Das natürliche System der Vögel. Mit hundert Tafeln größtenteils Original-Abbildungen der bis jetzt entdeckten fast zwölfhundert typischen Formen = Ornithologie méthodique; ou, Exposé des genres des oiseaux de toutes les parties du monde, réunissant les découvertes les plus récentes représentant a peu près mille et deux cent types charactérestiques. Dresden: Expedition der Vollständigsten Naturgeschichte, 1853:9. Die vollständigste Naturgeschichte der Schwimmvögel: Aves natatores. Oiseaux nageurs. Dresden: Expedition der volständigsten Naturgeschichte, 1848?: pl. 284, 51b, Novit. 21, fig. 2341–42 (insert?), pl. 335, 51c, Novit. 72, fig. 2652 (insert?).

Marmaronetta angustirostris (Ménétries, 1832) Marbled Duck

Anas angustirostris E. Ménétries. Catalogue raisonné des objets de zoologie. Recueillis dans un voyage au Caucase et jusqu’aux frontières actuelles de la Perse. St.-Pétersbourg [Saint Petersburg]: Académie impériale des sciences, 1832:58.

[Marmaronetta] angustirostris L. Reichenbach. “Die Vögel. The Birds. Aves. Les oiseaux – Systema avium.” In Avium systema nature. Das natürliche System der Vögel. Mit hundert Tafeln größtenteils Original-Abbildungen der bis jetzt entdeckten fast zwölfhundert typischen Formen = Ornithologie méthodique; ou, Exposé des genres des oiseaux de toutes les parties du monde, réunissant les découvertes les plus récentes représentant a peu près mille et deux cent types charactérestiques. Dresden: Expedition der Vollständigsten Naturgeschichte, 1853:9. Die vollständigste Naturgeschichte der Schwimmvögel: Aves natatores. Oiseaux nageurs. Dresden: Expedition der volständigsten Naturgeschichte, 1848?: pl. 284, 51b, Novit. 21, fig. 2341–42 (insert?), pl. 335, 51c, Novit. 72, fig. 2652 (insert?).

Netta Kaup, 1829

Netta Jakob Kaup. Skizzirte Entwickelungs-Geschichte und natürliches System der europäischen Thierwelt. Darmstadt/Leipzig: Carl Wilhelm Leske, 1829, 1:102.

Netta rufina (Pallas, 1773) Red-crested Pochard

Anas rufina P.S. Pallas. “Anhang zum zweiten Theil. Descriptiones animalium.” In Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Rußischen Reichs. Pt. 2, Buch 2, Reise durch verschiedene Theile des Rußischen Reichs im 1771sten Jahr. St. Petersburg: Kaiserlichen Academie der Wissenschaften, 1773:713.

Netta rufina Robert Ridgway. “Some Emended Names of North American Birds.” Proceedings of the United States National Museum 8, no. 23 (1885): 354–356, 355.

Netta erythrophthalma (Wied-Neuwied, 1833) Southern Pochard

A[nas] erythrophthalma Maximilian zu Wied [Maximilian zu Wied-Neuwied]. Beiträge zur Naturgeschichte von Brasilien. Weimar: Verlage des Landes-Industrie-Comptoirs, 1833, Bd. 4, Abt. 2:929.

[Netta] erythrophthalma Jean Delacour and Ernst Mayr. “The Family Anatidae.” Wilson Bulletin 57, no. 1 (1945): [3]–55, 40.

Aythya Boie, 1822

Aythya F. Boie. Tagebuch gehalten auf einer Reise durch Norwegen im Jahre 1817, edited by H. Boie. Schleswig: Königliches Taubstummen Institut, 1822:308 (narr.), 351 (syn.).

Aythya valisineria (Wilson, 1814) Canvasback

Anas valisineria Alexander Wilson. American Ornithology; or, The Natural History of the Birds of the United States. Philadelphia: Bradford and Inskeep, 1814, 8:103, pl. 70, fig. 5.

[Aythya] Valisneria F. Boie. “Generalübersicht der ornithologischen Ordnungen, Familien und Gattungen.” Isis von Oken, Heft 10 (1826): cols. “975”[969]–981, col. 980.

Aythya Vallisneria Charles Lucian Bonaparte [Charles Lucien Bonaparte]. A Geographical and Comparative List of the Birds of Europe and North America. London: John Van Voorst, 1838:58.

Aythya valisineria Jean Delacour and Ernst Mayer. “The Family Anatidae.” Wilson Bulletin 57, no. 1 (1945): [3]–55, 26.

Aythya americana (Eyton, 1838) Redhead

Fuligula americana T. C. Eyton. A Monograph on the Anatidae, or Duck Tribe. London: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman; Shrewsbury: Eddowes, 1838:155.

Aythya americana Spencer F. Baird. Reports of Explorations and Surveys, to Ascertain the Most Practicable and Economical Route for a Railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, Made under the Direction of the Secretary of War, in 1853–6, According to Acts of Congress of March 8, 1853, May 31, 1854, and August 5, 1854. Vol. 9, General Report upon the Zoology of the Several Pacific Railroad Routes. Pt. 2 Birds, by Spencer F. Baird, with the co-operation of John Cassin and George N. Lawrence. House of Representatives Report Ex. Doc. No. 91 (1858): 793.

Aythya ferina (Linnaeus, 1758) Common Pochard

[Anas] ferina Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis . 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:126.

[Aythya] ferina F. Boie. “Ueber Classification, insonderheit der europäischen Vögel.” Isis von Oken, Jg. 1822, Heft 5 (1822): cols. 545–564, col. 564.

Aythya nyroca (Güldenstädt, 1770) Ferruginous Duck

Anas Nyroca A. I. Gueldenstaedt [J. A. Güldenstädt]. “Anas Nyroca.” Novi commentarii Academiae scientiarum imperialis Petropolitanae 14, pt. 1 (1770): 403–408, 403.

[Aythya] nyroca F. Boie. “Ueber Classification, insonderheit der europäischen Vögel.” Isis von Oken, Jg. 1822, Heft 5 (1822): cols. 545–564, col. 564.

Aythya collaris (Donovan, 1809) Ring-necked Duck

Anas Collaris E. Donovan. The Natural History of British Birds; or, A Selection of the Most Rare, Beautiful and Interesting Birds Which Inhabit This Country. The Descriptions from the Systema Naturæ of Linnæus, with General Observations, Either Original or Collected from the Latest and Most Esteemed English Ornithologists, and Embellished with Figures, Drawn, Engraved, and Coloured from the Original Specimens. London: published by author, and F. C. and J. Rivington, 1809, 6: pl. 147, descr. on following pp.

Aythya collaris Robert Ridgway. “Some Emended Names of North American Birds.” Proceedings of the United States National Museum 8, no. 23 (1885): 354–356, 356.

Aythya fuligula (Linnaeus, 1758) Tufted Duck

[Anas] Fuligula Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis . 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:128.

[Aythya] fuligula F. Boie. “Ueber Classification, insonderheit der europäischen Vögel.” Isis von Oken, Jg. 1822, Heft 5 (1822): cols. 545–564, col. 564.

Aythya marila (Linnaeus, 1761) Greater Scaup

[Anas] Marila Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Fauna svecica, sistens animalia sveciæ regni: mammalia, aves, amphibia, pisces, insecta, vermes, distributa per classes & ordines, genera & species, cum differentiis specierum, synonymis auctorum, nominibus incolarum, locis natalium, descriptionibus insectorum. 2nd edn. Stockholmiæ: Laurentii Salvii, 1761:39.

[Aythya] marila F. Boie. “Ueber Classification, insonderheit der europäischen Vögel.” Isis von Oken, Jg. 1822, Heft 5 (1822): cols. 545–564, col. 564.

Aythya affinis (Eyton, 1838) Lesser Scaup

Fuligula affinis T. C. Eyton. A Monograph on the Anatidae, or Duck Tribe. London: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman; Shrewsbury: Eddowes, 1838:157.

Aythya affinis Leonhard Stejneger. “Results of Ornithological Explorations in the Commander Islands and in Kamtschatka”. Bulletin of the United States National Museum, no. 29 (1885): 161.

Polysticta Eyton, 1836

Polysticta T. C. Eyton. “A Catalogue of British Birds.” In A History of the Rarer British Birds. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, and Houlston and Son, 1836:58.

Polysticta stelleri (Pallas, 1769) Steller’s Eider

Anas Stelleri Petri S. Pallas [Peter S. Pallas]. Spicilegia zoologica, quibus novae imprimis et obscurae animalium species iconibus, descriptionibus atque commentariis illustrantur. Berolini [Berlin]: Gottl. August. Lange, 1769, 1, fasc. 6:35, pl. 5.

Polysticta stelleri T. C. Eyton. “A Catalogue of British Birds.” In A History of the Rarer British Birds. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, and Houlston and Son, 1836:58.

Somateria Leach, 1819

Somateria W. E. Leach. “Appendix No. 2: Zoological Memoranda.” In A Voyage of Discovery, Made under the Orders of the Admiralty, in His Majesty’s Ships Isabella and Alexander, for the Purpose of Exploring Baffin’s Bay, and Inquiring into thxe Probability of a North-west Passage, by John Ross. London: John Murray, 1819:48.

Somateria fischeri (Brandt, 1847) Spectacled Eider

Fuligula (Lampronetta) Fischeri Joannes Fridericus Brandt [Johann Friedrich von Brandt]. Fuligula (Lampronetta) Fischeri. Novam avium rossaricum speciem, praemissis observationibus ad fuligularum generis sectionum et subgenerum quorundam characteres et affinitates spectantibus descripsit . Petropoli [Saint Petersburg]: Typis Academiae caesareae scientiarum, 1847:10 (text), 14 (descr.), fig. 1–4. (Republished as “Fulligulam (Lampronettam) Fischeri. Novam avium rossaricum speciem, praemissis observationibus ad fuligularum generis sectionum et subgenerum quorundam characteres et affinitates spectantibus descripsit.” Mémoires de l’Académie impériale des sciences de St.-Pétersbourg, 6th ser., 8, pt. 2: Sciences naturelles, 6 (1849): 6 (narr.), 10, fig. 1.)

S[omateria] Fischeri George Robert Gray. The Genera of Birds, Comprising Their Generic Characters, a Notice of the Habits of Each Genus, and an Extensive List of Species Referred to Their Several Genera. London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1849, 3, Appendix: 28.

Somateria spectabilis (Linnaeus, 1758) King Eider

[Anas] spectabilis Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:123.

Somateria Spectabilis W. E. Leach. “Appendix No. 2: Zoological Memoranda.” In A Voyage of Discovery, Made under the Orders of the Admiralty, in His Majesty’s Ships Isabella and Alexander, for the Purpose of Exploring Baffin’s Bay, and Inquiring into thxe Probability of a North-west Passage, by John Ross. London: John Murray, 1819:48.

Somateria mollissima (Linnaeus, 1758) Common Eider

[Anas] mollissima Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:124.

Somateria mollissima F. Boie. “Ueber Classification, insonderheit der europäischen Vögel.” Isis von Oken, Jg. 1822, Heft 5 (1822): cols. 545–564, col. 564.

S. m. v-nigrum Bonaparte & Gray, 1855 Pacific Eider

Somateria v. nigrum Ch. Bonaparte and George R. Gray. “M. le Prince Ch. Bonaparte présente, au nom de M. Gray un catalogue des oiseaux du Musée britannique, et indique à cette occasion les principales espèces nouvelles qu’il a observées récemment en Angleterre et en Écosse.” Also indexed as
“M. le Prince Ch. Bonaparte présente un exemplaire du catalogue des genres et sous-genres d’oiseaux contenus dans le Musée britannique, par M. J.-Edw. Gray [sic] et indique à cette occasion les principales espèces nouvelles qu’il vient d’observer dans son récent voyage en Écosse et en Angleterre.” Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l’Académie des sciences 41 (1855): 649–661, 661.

Somateria mollissima v-nigrum H. Hocke. “Ueber Enteneier und deren Merkmale [Part 4].”Zeitschift für Oologie 11, no. 4 (1901): 52–55, 52.

S. m. dresseri Sharpe, 1871 Dresser’s Eider

Somateria dresseri R. B. Sharpe. “On the American Eider Duck.” Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 4th ser., 8, no. 43 (1871): 51–53, 51, fig. 1.

Somateria mollissima var(?) dresseri Elliott Coues. Birds of the Northwest: A Hand-book of the Ornithology of the Region Drained by the Missouri River and Its Tributaries. Miscellaneous Publications Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories No. 3. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1874:580.

Somateria mollissima dresseri Robert Ridgway. “A Catalogue of the Birds of North America.” Proceedings of the United States National Museum 3, no. 13 (1880): 163–246, 205.

S. m. mollissima (Linnaeus, 1758)

Histrionicus Lesson, 1828

histrionicus R. P. Lesson. Manuel d’ornithologie, ou Description des genres et des principales espèces d’oiseaux. Paris: Roret, 1828, 2:415.

Histrionicus histrionicus (Linnaeus, 1758) Harlequin Duck

[Anas] histrionica Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:127.

Bucephala (Histrionicus) histrionica George Robert Gray. Hand-list of Genera and Species of Birds, Distinguishing Those Contained in the British Museum. Part 3, Struthiones, Grallæ, and Anseres, with Indices of Generic and Specific Names. London: Trustees [of the British Museum], 1871:87.

Histrionicus histrionicus Adolphus Boucard [Adolphe Boucard]. Catalogus avium. Hucusque descriptorum. Londini [London], 1876:60.

Melanitta Boie, 1822

Melanitta F. Boie. Tagebuch gehalten auf einer Reise durch Norwegen im Jahre 1817, edited by H. Boie. Schleswig: Königliches Taubstummen Institut, 1822:7 (narr.), 351 (syn.).

Melanitta perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758) Surf Scoter

[Anas] perspicillata Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:125.

[Melanitta] perspicillata F. Boie. “Ueber Classification, insonderheit der europäischen Vögel.” Isis von Oken, Jg. 1822, Heft 5 (1822): cols. 545–564, col. 564.

Melanitta fusca (Linnaeus, 1758) Velvet Scoter

[Anas] fusca Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:123.

[Melanitta] fusca F. Boie. “Ueber Classification, insonderheit der europäischen Vögel.” Isis von Oken, Jg. 1822, Heft 5 (1822): cols. 545–564, col. 564.

Melanitta deglandi (Bonaparte, 1850) White-winged Scoter

Oïdemia deglandi Charles Lucien Bonaparte. Revue critique de l’Ornithologie Européenne de M. le docteur Degland (de Lille). Bruxelles [Brussels]: V. Wouters, 1850:108.

Melanetta deglandi Ch. Bonaparte. “Conspectus anserum systematicus.” In “Excursion dans les divers Musées d’Allemagne, de Hollande et de Belgique (suite et fin) [Part 4] et Tableaux parallélique de l’ordre des Palmipèdes.” Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l’Académie des sciences 43, no. 13 (1856): 643–652, 651.Oidemia (Melanitta) Deglandii George Robert Gray. Hand-list of Genera and Species of Birds, Distinguishing Those Contained in the British Museum. Part 3, Struthiones, Grallæ, and Anseres, with Indices of Generic and Specific Names. London: Trustees [of the British Museum], 1871:89.

Melanitta deglandi Alphonse Dubois. Faune des vertebres de la Belgique. Serie des oiseaux. Bruxelles [Brussels]: C. Muquardt, Th. Falk Sr., 1894, 2:503 (syn.).

Melanitta stejnegeri (Ridgway, 1887) Stejneger’s Scoter

O[idemia (Melanitta)] stejnegeri Robert Ridgway. A Manual of North American Birds. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1887:112.

[Melanita] stejnegeri P. Baxter, H. Maggs and C. Gibbins. “The White-winged Scoter in Aberdeenshire: A New Scottish Bird.” Scottish Birds 32, no. 3 (2009): 269–275, 269.

Melanitta nigra (Linnaeus, 1758) Common Scoter

[Anas] nigra Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:123.

[Melanitta] nigra F. Boie. “Ueber Classification, insonderheit der europäischen Vögel.” Isis von Oken, Jg. 1822, Heft 5 (1822): cols. 545–564, col. 564.

Melanitta americana (Swainson, 1832) Black Scoter

Oidemia Americana William Swainson. “Oidemia Americana (Swainson.) American Scoter.” In Fauna boreali-americana; or, The Zoology of the Northern Parts of British America: Containing Descriptions of the Objects of Natural History Collected on the Late Northern Land Expeditions under Command of Captain Sir John Franklin, R.N.. Pt. 2, The Birds, by William Swainson and John Richardson. London: John Murray, “1831” [1832]: 450.

Melanitta americana T. C. Eyton. A Monograph on the Anatidae, or Duck Tribe. London: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, 1838:144.

Clangula Leach, 1819

Clangula W. E. Leach. “Appendix No. 2: Zoological Memoranda.” In A Voyage of Discovery, Made under the Orders of the Admiralty, in His Majesty’s Ships Isabella and Alexander, for the Purpose of Exploring Baffin’s Bay, and Inquiring into thxe Probability of a North-west Passage, by John Ross. London: John Murray, 1819:48.

Clangula hyemalis (Linnaeus, 1758) Long-tailed Duck / IJseend

[Anas] hyemalis Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:126.

Cl[angula] hiemalis [C. L.] Brehm. “Beschluß der Uebersicht der deutschen Vögel.” [= “Uebersicht der deutschen Vögelarten [Part 2].”] Isis von Oken 23, Heft 10 (1830): cols. 985–1013, col. 999.

Clangula hyemalis J. P. van Wickevoort Crommelin. “Nouvelles ornithologiques sur la faune des Pays-Bas.” Archives néerlandaises des sciences exactes et naturelles 10, no. 11 (1875): [166]–180, 175.

Bucephala Baird, 1858

Bucephala Spencer F. Baird. Reports of Explorations and Surveys, to Ascertain the Most Practicable and Economical Route for a Railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, Made under the Direction of the Secretary of War, in 1853–6, According to Acts of Congress of March 8, 1853, May 31, 1854, and August 5, 1854. Vol. 9, General Report upon the Zoology of the Several Pacific Railroad Routes. Pt. 2 Birds, by Spencer F. Baird, with the co-operation of John Cassin and George N. Lawrence. House of Representatives Report Ex. Doc. No. 91 (1858): xxiii (list), 795 (descr.).

Bucephala albeola (Linnaeus, 1758) Bufflehead / Buffelkopeend

[Anas] Albeola Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:124.

Bucephala albeola Spencer F. Baird. Reports of Explorations and Surveys, to Ascertain the Most Practicable and Economical Route for a Railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, Made under the Direction of the Secretary of War, in 1853–6, According to Acts of Congress of March 8, 1853, May 31, 1854, and August 5, 1854. Vol. 9, General Report upon the Zoology of the Several Pacific Railroad Routes. Pt. 2 Birds, by Spencer F. Baird, with the co-operation of John Cassin and George N. Lawrence. House of Representatives Report Ex. Doc. No. 91 (1858): 797.

Bucephala clangula (Linnaeus, 1758) Common Goldeneye

[Anas] Clangula Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:125.

[Bucephala] clangula George Robert Gray. Hand-list of Genera and Species of Birds, Distinguishing Those Contained in the British Museum. Part 3, Struthiones, Grallæ, and Anseres, with Indices of Generic and Specific Names. London: Trustees [of the British Museum], 1871:87.

.

Bucephala islandica (Gmelin, 1789) Barrow’s Goldeneye

Anas islandica Jo. Fridr. Gmelin. “Anas islandica.” In Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, by Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. 13th edn., edited by Jo. Frid. Gmelin. Lugduni [Lyon]: J. B. Delamolliere, 1789, 1, pt. 2:541.

Bucephala islandica Spencer F. Baird. Reports of Explorations and Surveys, to Ascertain the Most Practicable and Economical Route for a Railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, Made under the Direction of the Secretary of War, in 1853–6, According to Acts of Congress of March 8, 1853, May 31, 1854, and August 5, 1854. Vol. 9, General Report upon the Zoology of the Several Pacific Railroad Routes. Pt. 2 Birds, by Spencer F. Baird, with the co-operation of John Cassin and George N. Lawrence. House of Representatives Report Ex. Doc. No. 91 (1858): 796.

Mergellus Selby, 1840

Mergellus P. J. Selby. A Catalogue of the Generic and Sub-generic Types of the Class Aves, Birds, Arranged According to the Natural System with Separate Lists, Distinguishing the Various Quarters of the Globe in Which They Are to Be Procured. Newcastle: T. and J. Hodgson, 1840:47.

Mergellus albellus (Linnaeus, 1758) Smew

Anas Albellus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:129.

Mergellus albellus P. J. Selby. A Catalogue of the Generic and Sub-generic Types of the Class Aves, Birds, Arranged According to the Natural System with Separate Lists, Distinguishing the Various Quarters of the Globe in Which They Are to Be Procured. Newcastle: T. and J. Hodgson, 1840:47.

Lophodytes Reichenbach, 1853

Lophodytes L. Reichenbach. “Die Vögel. The Birds. Aves. Les oiseaux – Systema avium.” In Avium systema nature. Das natürliche System der Vögel. Mit hundert Tafeln größtenteils Original-Abbildungen der bis jetzt entdeckten fast zwölfhundert typischen Formen = Ornithologie méthodique; ou, Exposé des genres des oiseaux de toutes les parties du monde, réunissant les découvertes les plus récentes représentant a peu près mille et deux cent types charactérestiques. Dresden: Expedition der Vollständigsten Naturgeschichte, 1853:9. Die vollständigste Naturgeschichte der Schwimmvögel: Aves natatores. Oiseaux nageurs. Dresden: Expedition der volständigsten Naturgeschichte, 1848?: pl. 39, fig. 88–89.

Lophodytes cucullatus (Linnaeus, 1758) Hooded Merganser

[Anas] cucullatus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:129.

[Lophodytes] cucullatus L. Reichenbach. “Die Vögel. The Birds. Aves. Les oiseaux – Systema avium.” In Avium systema nature. Das natürliche System der Vögel. Mit hundert Tafeln größtenteils Original-Abbildungen der bis jetzt entdeckten fast zwölfhundert typischen Formen = Ornithologie méthodique; ou, Exposé des genres des oiseaux de toutes les parties du monde, réunissant les découvertes les plus récentes représentant a peu près mille et deux cent types charactérestiques. Dresden und Leipzig: Expedition der Vollständigsten Naturgeschichte, 1853:9. Die vollständigste Naturgeschichte der Schwimmvögel: Aves natatores. Oiseaux nageurs. Dresden: Expedition der volständigsten Naturgeschichte, 1848?: pl. 39, fig. 88–89.

Mergus Linnaeus, 1758

Mergus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:129.

Mergus merganser Linnaeus, 1758 Common Merganser

[Mergus] Merganser Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:129.

Mergus serrator Linnaeus, 1758 Red-breasted Merganser

[Mergus] Serrator Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:129.

Oxyura Bonaparte, 1828

Oxyura Charles Lucian Bonaparte [Charles Lucien Bonaparte]. “The Genera of North American Birds, and a Synopsis of the Species Found within the Territory of the United States: Systematically Arranged in Orders and Families (Part 2).” Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York 2, no. 12–14 (1828): 193–451, 390.

Oxyura jamaicensis (Gmelin, 1789) Ruddy Duck

Anas jamaicensis Jo. Fridr. Gmelin. “Anas jamaicensis.” In Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, by Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. 13th edn., edited by Jo. Frid. Gmelin. Lugduni [Lyon]: J. B. Delamolliere, 1789, 1, pt. 2:519.

Oxyura jamaicensis John C. Phillips. A Natural History of the Ducks. Vol. 4, Fuligulinæ (Concluded), Oxyurinæ, Merganettinæ and Merginæ. Boston, New York, Houghton Mifflin, 1926:159, pl. 84.

Oxyura leucocephala (Scopoli, 1769) White-headed Duck

Anas leucocephala Ioannis Antonii Scopoli [Giovanni Antonio Scopoli]. Annus I historico-naturalis. Lipsiæ [Leipzig]: Verlag von Christ. Gottlob Hilscheri, 1769:65.

[Oxyura leucocephala] Léon Olphe-Galliard. Contributions à la faune ornithologique de l’Europe occidentale. Recueil comprenant les espèces d’oiseaux qui se reproduisent dans cette région ou qui s’y montrent régulièrement de passage, augmenté de la description des principales espèces exotiques les plus voisines des indigènes ou susceptibles d’être confondues avec elles, ainsi que l’énumération des races domestiques. Bordeaux: Veuve Cadoret, 1887, fasc. 2: 30.

NUMIDIDAE de Sélys Longchamps, 1842

Numimidæ Edm. de Selys-Longchamps [Edm. de Sélys Longchamps]. Project de classification des oiseaux. In Faune belge. Part 1, Indication méthodique des mammifères, oiseaux, reptiles et poissions observé jusqu’ice en Belgique. Liège: H. Dessain, 1842: [273]. [error?]

Numididae [Lorenz Oken]. Review of Faune belge. I. Mammifères–Poissons, by E. Selys-Longchamps [Edm. de Sélys Longchamps]. Isis von Oken, Jrg. 1844, Heft. 8 (1844): cols. 628–631, col. 630.

Numida Linnaeus, 1764

Numida Carolo v. Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. Museum s:æ r:æ m:tis Adolphi Frederici regis svecorum, gothorum, vandalorumque &c. &c. &c. In quo animalia rariora. Imprimis & exotica: aves, amphibia, pisces describuntur. In Museum s:æ r:æ m:tis Ludovicæ Ulricæ reginæ svecorum, gothorum, vandalorumque &c. &c. &c. In quo animalia rariora, exotica, imprimis insecta & conchilia describuntur & determinantur prodromi instar editum. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laur. Salvii, 1764, 2:27.

Numida meleagris (Linnaeus, 1758) Helmeted Guineafowl

[Phasianus] Meleagris Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:158.

[Numida] Meleagris Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 12th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1766, 1:273.

ODONTOPHORIDAE Gould, 1944

Odontophorinæ John Gould. A Monograph of the Odontophorinæ, or Partridges of America. London: published by author, 1844, pt. 1, ??. (Collated and republished as A Monograph of the Odontophorinæ, or Partridges of America. London: published by author, 1850: [iii].)

Odontophoridæ Alexander Macalister. An Introduction to the Systematic Zoology and Morphology of Vertebrate Animals. Dublin University Press Series. Dublin: Hodges, Foster and Figgis, 1878:176.

Callipepla Wagler, 1832

Callipepla [J. G.] Wagler. “Mittheilungen über einige mirkwürdige Thiere.” Isis von Oken, Jg. 1832, Heft 3 (1832): cols. 275–282, col. 277.

Callipepla californica (Shaw, 1798) California Quail

Tetrao Californicus George Shaw. “Tetrao Californicus.” In Naturæ vivarii = The Naturalist’s Miscellany, by George Shaw and Frederick P. Nodder. [London: Nodder, 1798], fasc. 108., name preceeding pl. 345. (Collated and republished as Naturæ vivarii = The Naturalist’s Miscellany, by George Shaw and Frederick P. Nodder. [London: Nodder, 1798?], 9: pp. preceeding pl. 345.)

Callipepla californica John Gould. A Monograph of the Odontophorinæ, or Partridges of America. London: published by author, 1844, pt. 1: pl. 16. (Collated and republished as A Monograph of the Odontophorinæ, or Partridges of America. London: published by author, 1850: [ix], pl. [16], text on following pp.)

Colinus Goldfuss, 1820

Colinus Georg August Goldfuß. Systematische Uebersicht der Gattungen. Abt. 2 of Handbuch der Zoologie. Pt. 3, Abt. 2 of Handbuch der Naturgeschichte, zum Gebrauch bei Vorlesungen, by G. H. Schubert [G. H. von Schubert]. Nürnberg: Johann Leonhard Schrag, 1820:220

Colinus virginianus (Linnaeus, 1758) Northern Bobwhite

[Tetrao] virginianus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:161.

Colinus virginianus Leonhard Stejneger. “Analecta ornithologica, Fourth Series.” Auk 2, no. 1 (1885): 43–52, 45.

PHASIANIDAE Horsfield, 1821

Phasiani William Elford Leach. The Zoological Miscellany: Being Descriptions of New, or Interesting Animals. London: E. Nodder and Son, 1815, 2:13.

Phasianidæ Thomas Horsfield. “Systematic Arrangement and Description of Birds from the Island of Java.” Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 13, pt. 1 (1821): 133–200, 185.

Tetrastes Keyserling & Blasius, 1840

Tetrastes A. von Keyserling and J. H. Blasius. “Systematisches Verzeichniss der Wirbelthire Europa’s.” In Die Wirbelthiere Europa’s. Buch 1, Die unterscheidenden Charactere. Braunschweig: Friedrich Vieweg und Sohn, 1840:lxiv.

Tetrastes bonasia (Linnaeus, 1758) Hazel Grouse

[Tetrao] Bonasia Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:160.

Tetrastes Bonasia A. von Keyserling and J. H. Blasius. “Systematisches Verzeichniss der Wirbelthire Europa’s.” In Die Wirbelthiere Europa’s. Buch 1, Die unterscheidenden Charactere. Braunschweig: Friedrich Vieweg und Sohn, 1840:200.

Tetrao Linnaeus, 1758

Tetrao Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:159.

Tetrao urogallus Linnaeus, 1758 Western Capercaillie

Tetrao Urogallus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:159.

Lyrurus Swainson, 1832

Lyrurus William Swainson. “Characters of Genera and Sub-genera Hitherto Undefined.” In Fauna boreali-americana; or, The Zoology of the Northern Parts of British America: Containing Descriptions of the Objects of Natural History Collected on the Late Northern Land Expeditions under Command of Captain Sir John Franklin, R.N.. Part 2, The Birds, by William Swainson and John Richardson. London: John Murray, “1831” [1832]: [481]–497, 497.

Lyrurus tetrix (Linnaeus, 1758) Black Grouse

Tetrao Tetrix Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:159.

Lyrurus tetrix William Swainson. “Characters of Genera and Sub-genera Hitherto Undefined.” In Fauna boreali-americana; or, The Zoology of the Northern Parts of British America: Containing Descriptions of the Objects of Natural History Collected on the Late Northern Land Expeditions under Command of Captain Sir John Franklin, R.N.. Part 2, The Birds, by William Swainson and John Richardson. London: John Murray, “1831” [1832]: [481]–497, 497.

Lyrurus mlokosiewiczi (Taczanowski, 1875) Caucasian Grouse

Tetrao mlokosiewiczi L. Taczanowski [W. Taczanowski]. “Description d’une nouvelle espèce de Coq de bruyère.” Proceedings of the Scientific Meetings of of the Zoological Society of London for the Year 1875, pt. 2, no. 17 (1875): 266–269, 267

Lyrurus mlokosiewiczi W. R. Ogilvie-Grant. Catalogue of the Birds in the British Museum. Vol. 22, Catalogue of the Game Birds (Pterocletes, Gallinæ, Opisthocomi, Hemipodii) in the Collection of the British Museum. London: Trustees [of the British Museum (Matural History)], 1893:58.

Lagopus Brisson, 1760

Lagopus M. Brisson. Ornithologie; ou, Méthode contenant la division des oiseaux en ordres, sections, genres, especes & leurs variétés. A laquelle on a joint une description exacte de chaque espece, avec les citations des auteurs qui en ont traité, les noms quils leur ont donnés, ceux que leur ont donnés les différentes nations, & les noms vulgaires = Ornithologia; sive, Synopsis methodica sistens avium divisionem in ordines, sectiones, genera, species, ipsarumque varietates. Cum accurata cujusque speciei descriptione, citacionibus auctorum de iis tractantium, nominibus eis ab ipsis & nationibus impositis, nominibusque vulgaribus. Paris: Cl. Jean-Baptiste Bauche, 1760, 1:26 (tab.), 181 (txt.).

Lagopus muta Montin, 1781 Rock Ptarmigan

Tetrao mutus Lars Montin. “Tvånne arter af Snóripan.” Physiographiska Sällskapets handlingar 1, sect. 3 (“1776” [1781]): 150–155, 155.

Lagopus mutus [W. E. Leach]. Systematic Catalogue of the Specimens of the Indigenous Mammalia and Birds That Are Present in the British Museum, with Their Localities and Authorities. To Which Is Added a List of the Described Species That Are Wanting to Complete the Collection of British Mammalia and Birds. London: Richard and Arthur Taylor, 1816:27. (Republished as Leach’s Systematic Catalogue of the Specimens of the Indigenous Mammalia and Birds in the British Museum. Edited by Osbert Salvin. London: Willughby Society, 1882:27.)

Lagopus muta Leonhard Stejneger. “A Brief Review of the Lagopodes Belonging to the Group Attagen Kaup.” Zeitschrift für die gesammte Ornithologie 1, Heft 2 (1884): 86–92, 87.

Lagopus lagopus (Linnaeus, 1758) Willow Ptarmigan

[Tetrao] Lagopus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:159.

Lagopus lagopus Henry Seebohm. A History of British Birds, with Coloured Illustrations of Their Eggs. London: R. H. Porter, 1884, 2:423.

L. l. scotica (Latham, 1787) Red Grouse

[Tetrao] Scoticus [John Latham]. Supplement to the General Synopsis of Birds. London: Leigh and Sotheby, 1787:290.

Lagopus lagopus scotica George Sangster, J. Martin Collinson, Andreas J. Helbig, Alan. G. Knox and David T. Parkin. “Taxonomic Recommendations for British birds: Second Report.” Ibis 146, no. 1 (2004): 153–157, 153. Since Lagopus is feminine, gender change after Normand David and Michel Gosselin. “The Grammatical Gender of Avian Genera.” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 122, no. 4 (2002): 257–282, 258.

Lagopus scoticus [W. E. Leach]. Systematic Catalogue of the Specimens of the Indigenous Mammalia and Birds That Are Present in the British Museum, with Their Localities and Authorities. To Which Is Added a List of the Described Species That Are Wanting to Complete the Collection of British Mammalia and Birds. London: Richard and Arthur Taylor, 1816:27. (Republished as Leach’s Systematic Catalogue of the Specimens of the Indigenous Mammalia and Birds in the British Museum. Edited by Osbert Salvin. London: Willughby Society, 1882:27.

Lagopus lagopus scoticus Ernst Hartert. “Birds Peculiar to the British Islands.” Ibis, 9th ser., 1, no. 4 (1907): 656. Announcement of “On Birds Represented in the British Isles by Peculiar Forms.” British Birds 1, no. 7 (1907): 208–222, 222.

L. l. lagopus (Latham, 1787)

Tetraogallus Gray, 1832

Tetraogallus John Edward Gray. Illustrations of Indian Zoology, Chiefly Selected from the Collection of Major-General Hardwicke, FRS. London: Treuttel, Wurtz, Treuttel, Jun. and Richter, 1832, pt. 11: pl. 46. (Collated and republished as Illustrations of Indian Zoology, Chiefly Selected from the Collection of Major-General Hardwicke, FRS. London: Adolphus Richter, 1834, 2: pl. 46.)

Tetraogallus caucasicus (Pallas, 1811) Caucasian Snowcock

Tetrao caucasica Petro Pallas [Peter Pallas]. Zoographia rosso-asiatica, sistens omnium animalium in extenso imperio rossico, et adjacentibus maribus observatorum recensionem, domicilia, mores et descriptiones, anatomen atque icones plurimorum. Petropoli [Saint Petersburg]: Ex officina Caes. Academiae scientiarum, 1811, 2:76. (Republished as Zoographia rosso-asiatica, sistens omnium animalium in extenso imperio rossico, et adjacentibus maribus observatorum recensionem, domicilia, mores et descriptiones, anatomen atque icones plurimorum. Petropoli [Saint Petersburg]: In officina Caesareum Academiae scientiarum impress, 1831, 2:76.)

Tetraogallus caucasicus A. Marchand. “Poussins des oiseaux d’Europe.” Revue et magasin de zoologie pure et appliquée, an. 14, 3rd ser., t. 5 (1877): 354–358, 354, pl. 12.

Tetraogallus caspius (Gmelin, 1784) Caspian Snowcock

Tetrao caspius Samuel Gottlieb Gmelin. Reise durch Russland zur Untersuchung der drey Natur-Reiche. Theil 4, Reise von Astrachan nach Zarigyn und von da durch die Kumanische Steppe, über Mosdok zurük, imgleichen zweyte Persische Reise, in den Jahren 1772 und 1773, bis im Frühling 1774. St. Petersburg: Kayserlichen Academie der Wissenschaften, 1784:67, pl. 10.

Tetraogallus Caspius John Gould. The Birds of Asia. London: published by author, 1853, fasc. 5, pl. 26, text on following pages. (Collated and republished in The Birds of Asia. London: published by author, 1883, 7: pl. 26, text on following pages.

)

Alectoris Kaup, 1829

Alectoris Jakob Kaup. Skizzirte Entwickelungs-Geschichte und natürliches System der europäischen Thierwelt. Darmstadt: Carl Wilhelm Leske, 1829, 1:180, 193.

Alectoris graeca (Meisner, 1804) Rock Partridge

[Perdix] Graeca Friedrich Meisner Systematisches Verzeichniss der Vogel, welche die Schweiz entweder bewohnen, oder theils zu bestemmten, theils zu unbestemmten Zeiten besuchen, und sich auf der Gallerie der Bürger-Bibliothek in Bern ausgestopft befinden. Bern: Hallerschen Buchhandlung, 1804:41.

A[lectoris] graeca Ernst Hartert Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. Berlin: R. Friedländer and Sohn, 1921, Heft 16 (Bd. 3, Heft 2): 1903 (tab.), 1905 (text). (Collated and republished in Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. Berlin: R. Friedländer and Sohn, 1922, Bd. 3:1903 (tab.), 1905 (text).)

A. g. graeca (Meisner, 1804)

A. g. whitakeri Schiebel, 1934 Sicilian Rock Partridge

Alectoris graeca whitakeri G. Schiebel. “Alectoris graeca whitakeri subsp. nova. Steinhuhn von Sizilien.” Falco 30, no. 1 (1934): 2–3, 2.

Alectoris chukar (Gray, 1830) Chukar Partridge

Perdix Chukar John Edward Gray. Illustrations of Indian Zoology, Chiefly Selected from the Collection of Major-General Hardwicke, FRS. London: Treuttel, Wurtz, Treuttel, Jun. and Richter, 1830, pt. 2, pl. 54. (Collated and republished as Illustrations of Indian Zoology, Chiefly Selected from the Collection of Major-General Hardwicke, FRS. London: Treuttel, Wurtz, Treuttel, Jun. and Richter, 1832, 1: pl. 54.)

A[lectoris] chukar P. P. Sushkin. “Notes on Alectoris chukar, with Descriptions of Six New Subspecies.” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 48, no. 317 (1927): 22–27, 22.

Alectoris philbyi Lowe, 1934 Philby’s Partridge

Alectoris græca philbyi P. R. Lowe. “Description of a New Form of the Red Legged Partridge (Alectoris græca philbyi) from Arabia.” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 55, no. 380 (1934): 8–9, 8.

A[lectoris] philbyi George E. Watson. “Sympatry in Palearctic Alectoris Partridges.” Evolution 16, No. 1 (1962): 11–19, 15.

Alectoris barbara (Bonnaterre, 1790) Barbary Partridge

Perdix Barbara [P. J.] Bonnaterre. Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature. Ornithologie. Paris: Panckoucke, 1790, livr. 38: pl. 94, fig. 2; 1792, livr. 51:208 (text). (Collated and republished in [P. J.] Bonnaterre and L. P. Vieillot. Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature. Ornithologie. Paris: Mme. veuve Agasse, 1823, pt. 1:208 (text); [pt. 4] Planches: pl. 94, fig. 2.)

A[lectoris] barbara Ernst Hartert. Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. R. Friedländer & Sohn, 1921, Heft 16 (Bd. 3, Heft 2): 1903 (table), 1910 (text). (Collated and republished in Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. R. Friedländer & Sohn, 1922, Bd. 3:1903 (table), 1910 (text).)

A. b. barbara (Bonnaterre, 1790)

A. b. barbata (Reichenow, 1896)

C[accabis] barbata Ant. Reichenow. “Über ein merkwürdiges Steinhuhn.” Ornithologische Monatsberichte 4, no. 5 (1896): 76.

Alectoris barbara barbata Ernst Hartert. Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. R. Friedländer & Sohn, 1922, Heft 18–19 (Bd. 3, Heft 4–5): 2215. (Collated and republished in Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. R. Friedländer & Sohn, 1922, Bd. 3:2215.)

Alectoris rufa (Linnaeus, 1758) Red-legged Partridge

[Tetrao] rufus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:160.

A[lectoris] rufa Ernst Hartert. Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. R. Friedländer & Sohn, 1921, Heft 16 (Bd. 3, Heft 2): 1903 (table), 1912 (text). (Collated and republished in Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. R. Friedländer & Sohn, 1922, Bd. 3:1903 (table), 1912 (text).)

Alectoris melanocephala (Rüppell, 1835) Arabian Partridge

Perdix melanocephala Eduard Rüppell. Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Frankfurt am Main: Siegmund Schmerber, 1835, livr. 2 (Vögel): 11, fig. 5. (Collated and republished in Vögel. In Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Frankfurt am Main: Siegmund Schmerber, 1840:11, fig. 5).

A[lectoris] melanocephala Ernst Hartert. Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. R. Friedländer & Sohn, 1921, Heft 16 (Bd. 3, Heft 2): 1903 (table), 1915 (text). (Collated and republished in Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. R. Friedländer & Sohn, 1922, Bd. 3:1903 (table), 1915 (text).)

Ammoperdix Gould, 1851

Ammoperdix John Gould. The Birds of Asia. London: published by author, 1851, pt. 3: pl. 1, text on following page. (Collated and republished in The Birds of Asia. London: published by author, [1883?], 7: pl. 1, text on following page.)

Ammoperdix griseogularis (Brandt, 1843) See-see Partridge

Perdix griseogularis J.-F. Brandt [J. F. von Brandt]. “Notes sur une nouvelles espèces de Perdrix (Perdix griseogularis).” Bulletin de la Classe physico-mathématique de l’Académie impériale des sciences de St.-Péterbourg 1, no. 23 (1843): col. 365.

Ammoperdix griseogularis F. De Filippi. Note di un viaggio in Persia nel 1862. Milano [Milan]: G. Daelli, 1865, 1:351.

Ammoperdix heyi (Temminck, 1825) Sand Partridge

Perdix Heyi C. J. Temminck. “Perdrix de Hey. Perdix Heyi. Temm.” In Nouveau recueil de planches coloriées d’oiseaux, pour servir de suite et de complément aux planches enluminées de Buffon. Paris: F. G. Levrault, 1825, livr. 55: pl. 328, 329. (Collated and republished as Nouveau recueil de planches coloriées d’oiseaux, pour servir de suite et de complément aux planches enluminées de Buffon, édition in-folio et in-4⁰ de l’Imprimerie royale, 1770. Paris: F. G. Levrault, 1838, 5: pl. 328, 329, name on following page [101].)

Ammoperdix Heyi John Gould. The Birds of Asia. London: published by author, 1851, pt. 3: pl. 1, text on following page. (Collated and republished in The Birds of Asia. London: published by author, 1851, 7: pl. 2, text on following page.)

Francolinus Stephens, 1819

Francolinus James Francis Stephens. General Zoology; or, Systematic Natural History Vol. 11, pt. 2, Birds. London: J. Walker; Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme and Brown; J. and A. Arch; E. Jeffery; Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy; R. Scholey; Sherwood, Neely and Jones; G. and W. B. Whittaker; J. Black and Son; W. Lowe; J. Booth; S. Bagster; J. Mawman; R. Fenner; Ogle; Rodwell; J. Robinson; and J. Harper, 1819:316.

Francolinus francolinus (Linnaeus, 1766) Black Francolin

[Tetrao] Francolinus Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 12th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1766, 1:275.

Francolinus francolinus W. R. Ogilvie Grant [W. R. Ogilvie-Grant] “A Short Review of the Francolins Belonging to the Genera Francolinus and Pternistes.” Ibis, 6th ser., 4, no. 13 (1892): 32–55, 38.

F. f. francolinus (Linnaeus, 1766)

F. f. arabistanicus Zarudny & Härms, 1913

Francolinus orientalis arabistanicus N. Sarudny [N. Zarudny] and M. Härms. “Neue Formen der Frankoline aus Persien.” Ornithologische Monatsberichte 21, no. 4 (1913): [53]–55, 54.

Francolinus francolinus arabistanicus Ernst Hartert. Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. R. Friedländer & Sohn, 1921, Heft 16 (Bd. 3, Heft 2): 1923. (Collated and republished in Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. R. Friedländer & Sohn, 1922, Bd. 3:1923.)

F. f. bogdanovi Zarudny, 1906

Francolinus orientalis bogdanovi N. Sarudny [N. Zarudny]. “Francolinus orientalis bogdanovi subsp. nov.” Ornithologische Monatsberichte 14, no. 9 (1906): 151–152, 151.

Francolinus francolinus bogdanovi Ernst Hartert. Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. R. Friedländer & Sohn, 1921, Heft 16 (Bd. 3, Heft 2): 1923. (Collated and republished in Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. R. Friedländer & Sohn, 1922, Bd. 3:1922.)

Francolinus pondicerianus (Gmelin, 1789) Grey Francolin

[Tetrao] pondicerianus Jo. Fridr. Gmelin. “[Tetrao] pondicerianus.” In Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, by Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. 13th edn., edited by Jo. Frid. Gmelin. Lugduni [Lyon]: J. B. Delamolliere, 1789, 1, pt. 2:760.

James Francis Stephens. General Zoology; or, Systematic Natural History, Commenced by the Late George Shaw M.D. F.R.S. Vol. 11, pt. 2, Birds. London: J. Walker; Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme and Brown; J. and A. Arch; E. Jeffery; Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy; R. Scholey; Sherwood, Neely and Jones; G. and W. B. Whittaker; J. Black and Son; W. Lowe; J. Booth; S. Bagster; J. Mawman; R. Fenner; Ogle; Rodwell; J. Robinson; and J. Harper, 1819:321.

Pternistis Wagler, 1832

Pternistis [J. G.] Wagler. “Neue Sippen und Gattungen Säugthiere und Vögel.” Isis von Oken, Jg. 1832, Heft 11 (1832): cols. 1218–1235, col. 1229.

Pternistis erckelii (Rüppell, 1835) Erckel’s Spurfowl

Perdix Erckelii Eduard Rüppell. Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Frankfurt am Main: Siegmund Schmerber, 1835, livr. 2 (Vögel): 12, fig. 6. (Collated and republished in Vögel. In Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Frankfurt am Main: Siegmund Schmerber, 1840:12, fig. 6).

[Pternistis] erckelii Timothy M. Crowe, Eric H. Harley, Mariola B. Jakutowicz, Joris Komen and Anna A. Crowe. “Phylogenetic, Taxonomic and Biogeographical Implications of Genetic, Morphological, and Behavioral Variation in Francolins (Phasianidae: Francolinus).” Auk 109, no. 1 (1992): 24–42, 37.

Pternistis bicalcaratus (Linnaeus, 1766) Double-spurred Spurfowl

[Tetrao] bicalcaratus Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 12th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1766, 1:277.

[Pternistis] bicalcaratus Timothy M. Crowe, Eric H. Harley, Mariola B. Jakutowicz, Joris Komen and Anna A. Crowe. “Phylogenetic, Taxonomic and Biogeographical Implications of Genetic, Morphological, and Behavioral Variation in Francolins (Phasianidae: Francolinus).” Auk 109, no. 1 (1992): 24–42, 37.

Perdix Brisson, 1760

Perdix M. J. Brisson. Ornithologie; ou, Méthode contenant la division des oiseaux en ordres, sections, genres, especes & leurs variétés. A laquelle on a joint une description exacte de chaque espece, avec les citations des auteurs qui en ont traité, les noms quils leur ont donnés, ceux que leur ont donnés les différentes nations, & les noms vulgaires = Ornithologia; sive, Synopsis methodica sistens avium divisionem in ordines, sectiones, genera, species, ipsarumque varietates. Cum accurata cujusque speciei descriptione, citacionibus auctorum de iis tractantium, nominibus eis ab ipsis & nationibus impositis, nominibusque vulgaribus. Paris: Cl. Jean-Baptiste Bauche, 1760, 1:26 (table), 219 (text).

Perdix perdix (Linnaeus, 1758) Grey Partridge

[Tetrao] Perdix Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:160.

Perdix perdix Ernst Hartert. Katalog der Vogelsammlung in Museum der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Frankfurt am Main. Frankfurt am Main: Gebrüder Knauer, 1891:194.

Coturnix Garsault, 1764

Coturnix [François Alexandre Pierre] de Garsault. Les figures des plantes et animaux d’usage en medecine, décrits dans la Matiere Medicale de Geoffroy Medecin. [Paris]: published by author, [1764], 5: pl. 686.

Coturnix coturnix (Linnaeus, 1758) Common Quail

[Tetrao] Coturnix Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:161.

[Coturnix] coturnix [Hinrich] Lichtenstein. Nomenclator avium Musei zoologici berolinensis = Namenverzeichniss der in der zoologischen Sammlung der Königlichen Universität zu Berlin aufgestellten Arten von Vögeln nach den in der neueren Systematik am meisten zur Geltung gekommenen Namen der Gattungen und ihrer Unterabtheilungen. Berlin: [Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften], 1854:84.

Coturnix delegorguei Delegorgue, 1847 Harlequin Quail

Coturnix Delegorguei Adulphe Delegorgue. Voyage dans L’Afrique australe, notamment dans le territoire de Natal dans celui des cafres Amazoulous et Makatisses et jusqu’au tropique de Capricorne, exécuté dans les années 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842, 1843 & 1844, accompagné de dessins et cartes. With an introduction by Albert Montémont. Paris: A. René, [1847], 2:615.

Syrmaticus Wagler, 1832

Syrmaticus [J. G.] Wagler. “Neue Sippen und Gattungen Säugthiere und Vögel.” Isis von Oken, Jg. 1832, Heft 11 (1832): cols. 1218–1235, col. 1229.

Syrmaticus reevesii (Gray, 1829) Reeves’s Pheasant

Phasianus Reevesii John Edward Gray. “Reeves’ Pheasant, Phasianus Reevesii. Gray.” In Aves, Part 8, by Edward Griffith. Pt. 20 of The Animal Kingdom Described and Arranged in Conformity with Its Organization, by the Baron Cuvier, Member of the Institute of France &c. &c. &c. with Additional Descriptions of All the Species Hitherto Named, and of Many not Before Noticed, by Edward Griffith and Others. [Translated by Edward Pidgeon?] London: Whittaker, Treacher, [1829]: 25. (Collated and republished in The Animal Kingdom Arranged in Conformity with Its Organization, by the Baron Cuvier, Member of the Institute of France &c. &c. &c. with Additional Descriptions of All the Species Hitherto Named, and of Many not Before Noticed, by Edward Griffith and Others. Vol. 8, The Class of Aves Arranged by the Baron Cuvier, with Specific Descriptions, by Edward Griffith and Edward Pidgeon. London: Whittaker, Treacher, “1829” [1830], 3:25.)

Syrmaticus reevesii [J. G.] Wagler. “Neue Sippen und Gattungen Säugthiere und Vögel.” Isis von Oken, Jg. 1832, Heft 11 (1832): cols. 1218–1235, col. 1229.

Phasianus Linnaeus, 1758

Phasianus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:158.

Phasianus colchicus Linnaeus, 1758 Common Pheasant

[Phasianus] colchicus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:158.

Chrysolophus Gray, 1834

Chrysolophus John Edward Gray. Illustrations of Indian Zoology, Chiefly Selected from the Collection of Major-General Hardwicke, FRS. London: Adolphus Richter, 1834, pt. 15 + 16: pl. 41, fig. 2. (Collated and republished in Illustrations of Indian Zoology, Chiefly Selected from the Collection of Major-General Hardwicke, FRS. London: Adolphus Richter, 1834, 2: pl. 41, fig. 2.)

Chrysolophus pictus (Linnaeus, 1758) Golden Pheasant

[Phasianus] pictus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:158.

Chrysolophus pictus John Edward Gray. Illustrations of Indian Zoology, Chiefly Selected from the Collection of Major-General Hardwicke, FRS. London: Adolphus Richter, 1834, pt. 15 + 16: pl. 41, fig. 2. (Collated and republished in Illustrations of Indian Zoology, Chiefly Selected from the Collection of Major-General Hardwicke, FRS. London: Adolphus Richter, 1834, 2: pl. 41, fig. 2.)

Chrysolophus amherstiae (Leadbeater, 1829) Lady Amherst’s Pheasant

Phasianus Amherstiæ Benjamin Leadbeater. “On an Undescribed Species of the Genus Phasianus.” Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 16, pt. 1 (1829): 129–131, 129, pl. 15.

Chrysolophus Amherstiæ G. R. Gray. List of the Specimens of Birds in the Collection of the British Museum. Pt. 5, Gallinæ. London: Trustees [of the British Museum], 1867:30.

Pavo Linnaeus, 1758

Pavo Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:156.

Pavo cristatus Linnaeus, 1758 Indian Peafowl

[Pavo] cristatus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:156.

CAPRIMULGIDAE Vigors, 1825

Caprimulgi Nicholas Aylward Vigors. “Observations on the Natural Affinities That Connect the Orders and Families of Birds.” Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 14, pt. 3 (1825): 395–517, 413.

Caprimulgidae James Francis Stephens. General zoology; or, Systematic Natural History, Commenced by the Late George Shaw M.D. F.R.S. Vol. 13, Pt. 2, Birds. London: J. and A. Arch; Longman, Rees; E. Jeffery and Son; J. Mawman; Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy; J. Booth; Sherwood; G. B. Whittaker; R. Scholey; S. Bagster; Rodwell and Martin; Saunders and Hodgson; Hamilton, Adams; Simpkin and Marshall; J. Duncan; T. and J. Allman; W. J. and J. Maynard; and Wightman and Cramp, 1826, 83.

Chordeiles Swainson, 1832

Chordeiles John Richardson. “Characters of Genera and Sub-genera hitherto Undefined.” In The Birds. Pt 2 of Fauna boreali-americana; or, The Zoology of the Northern Parts of British America: Containing Descriptions of the Objects of Natural History Collected on the Late Northern Land Expeditions under Command of Captain Sir John Franklin, R.N., by William Swainson and John Richardson. London: John Murray, “1831” [1832]: 496.

Chordeiles minor (Forster, 1771) Common Nighthawk

Capr[imulgus] minor John Reinhold Forster [Johann Reinhold Forster]. A Catalogue of the Animals of North America; Containing, an Enumeration of the Known Quadrupeds, Birds, Reptiles, Fish, Insects, Crustaceous and Testaceous Animals, Many of Which Are new, and Never Described Before. To Which Are Added, Short Directions for Collecting, Preserving, and Transporting, All Kinds of Natural History Curiosities. London: B. White, 1771:13.

Chordediles minor Jean Cabanis. “Chordediles minor Cab. n. sp.?” In “Dr. J. Gundlach’s Beiträge zur Ornithologie Cuba’s [Part 3],” by [Eduard Wilhelm] Sezekorn. Annotated and edited by Jean Cabanis. Journal für Ornithologie 4, Heft 1, no. 19 (1856): [1]–16, 5. (Printer’s error?)

Ch[ordeiles] minor G. Hartlaub. “Bericht über die Leistungen in der Naturgeschichte der Vögel während des Jahres 1856.” Archiv für Naturgeschichte, Jg. 23, Bd. 2 (1857): [29]–61, 46.

Caprimulgus Linnaeus, 1758

Caprimulgus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:193.

Caprimulgus ruficollis Temminck, 1820 Red-necked Nightjar

Caprimulgus ruficollis C.-J. Temminck [C. J. Temminck]. Manuel d’ornithologie; ou, Tableau systématique des oiseaux qui se trouvent en Europe, précédé d’une analyse du système général d’ornithologie, et suivi d’une table alphabétique des espèces. 2nd ed. Paris: H. Cousin, 1820:438.

Caprimulgus ruficollis ruficollis Temminck, 1820

Caprimulgus ruficollis desertorum Erlanger, 1900

Caprimulgus ruficollis desertorum Carlo von Erlanger. “Beiträge zur Avifauna Tunesiens [Part 4].” Journal für Ornithologie, 47, Folge 5, Bd. 6, no. 4 (“1899” [1900]): 449–532, 521.

Caprimulgus europaeus Linnaeus, 1758 European Nightjar

[Caprimulgus] europæus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:193.

Caprimulgus europaeus europaeus Linnaeus, 1758

Caprimulgus europaeus unwini Hume, 1871

Caprimulgus unwini Allan Hume. “Stray Notes on Indian Ornithology, No. VII.” Ibis, 3rd ser., 1, no. 4 (1871): 403–413, 406.

C[aprimulgus] europaeus unwini Ant. ReichenowC[aprimulgus] europaeus unwini.” In “Bericht über die Jahresversammlung der Deutschen Ornithologischen Gesellschaft vom 11. bis 14. September 1896 in Berlin,” by O. Kleinschmidt. Journal für Ornithologie 45, no. 1 (1897): 76–83, 78.

Caprimulgus aegyptius Lichtenstein, 1823 Egyptian Nightjar

C[aprimulgus] aegyptius H. Lichtenstein. Verzeichniss der Doubletten des Zoologischen Museums der Königl. Universität zu Berlin, nebst Beschreibung vieler bisher unbekannter Arten von Säugethieren, Vögeln, Amphibien und Fischen. Berlin: T. Trautwein, 1823:59.

Caprimulgus mahrattensis Sykes, 1832 Sykes’s Nightjar

Caprimulgus Mahrattensis W. H. Sykes. “Catalogue of Birds of the Raptorial and Insessorial Orders (Systematically Arranged) Observed in the Dukhun.” Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London, pt. 2, no. 18 (1832): 77–99, 83.

Caprimulgus nubicus Lichtenstein, 1823 Nubian Nightjar

C[aprimulgus] nubicus H. Lichtenstein. Verzeichniss der Doubletten des Zoologischen Museums der Königl. Universität zu Berlin, nebst Beschreibung vieler bisher unbekannter Arten von Säugethieren, Vögeln, Amphibien und Fischen. Berlin: T. Trautwein, 1823:59.

Caprimulgus nubicus tamaricis Tristram, 1864

Caprimulgus tamaricis H. B. Tristram. “Caprimulgus tamaricis, Tristram.” In “Exhibition of a Series of Bird-skins Collected by the Rev. H. B. Tristram,” by Philip Lutley Sclater. Proceedings of the Scientific Meetings of the Zoological Society of London for the Year 1864, pt. 2, no. 11 (1864): 169–170, 170.

Ernst Hartert. Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. R. Friedländer & Sohn, 1912, Heft 7 (Bd. 2, Heft 1): 852. (Collated and republished in Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. R. Friedländer & Sohn, 1921, Bd. 2:852.).

Caprimulgus nubicus nubicus Lichtenstein, 1823

Caprimulgus eximius Temminck, 1826 Golden Nightjar

Caprimulgus eximius C. J. Temminck. “Engoulevent distingué. Caprimulgus eximius. Rupp.” In Nouveau recueil de planches coloriées d’oiseaux, pour servir de suite et de complément aux planches enluminées de Buffon, by C. J. Temminck and Meiffren Laugier de Chartrouse [G. M. J. Meiffren]. Paris: F. G. Levrault, 1826, livr. 67: pl. 398, name on following page. (Collated and republished as Nouveau recueil de planches coloriées d’oiseaux, pour servir de suite et de complément aux planches enluminées de Buffon, édition in-folio et in-4⁰ de l’Imprimerie royale, 1770, by C. J. Temminck and Meiffren Laugier de Chartrouse [G. M. J. Meiffren]. Paris: F. G. Levrault, 1838, 4: pl. 328, name on following page [217].)

Caprimulgus poliocephalus Rüppell, 1840 Montane Nightjar

Caprimulgus poliocephalus Eduard Rüppell. Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Frankfurt am Main: Siegmund Schmerber, 1840, Lfg. 13: ??. (Collated and republished in Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Abt. 2, Vögel. Frankfurt am Main: Siegmund Schmerber, 1840:106.)

Caprimulgus inornatus Heuglin, 1869 Plain Nightjar

Caprimulgus inornatus M. Th von Heuglin. Ornithologie Nordost-Afrika’s, der Nilquellen- und Küsten Gebiete des Rothen Meeres und des nördlichen Somal-Landes. Cassel [Kassel]: Verlag von Theodor Fischer, 1869, Lfr. 5–6:129. (Collated and republished in Ornithologie Nordost-Afrika’s, der Nilquellen- und Küsten Gebiete des Rothen Meeres und des nördlichen Somal-Landes. Cassel [Kassel]: Verlag von Theodor Fischer, 1869, Bd. 1, Abt. 1:129. Republished 1874 [1875?]: 129.)

APOPIDAE Hartert, 1897

Apodinae Ernst Hartert. Podargidae, Caprimulgidae, und Macropterygidae. Aves, edited by A. Reichenow. Das Tierreich. Eine Zusammenstellung und Kennzeichnung der rezenten Tierformen, edited by Franz Eilhard Schulze, Lfg. 1. Berlin: R. Friedländer und Sohn, 1897:80.

Apodidae Ant. Reichenow. “Uber den Gattungs- und Familiennamen der Segler.” Ornithologische Monatsberichte 5, no. 1 (1897): 26–28, 27. (Rejected name.)

Apodidae Ernst Hartert. “Über Begriff und Nomenclatur subspecifischer Formen nebst Bemerkungen über die Nomenclatur der Familien.” Zoologischer Anzeiger, Bd. 20, no. 523 (1897): 41–47, 47. (Rejected name.)

Apodidae Franz Poche. “Einige notwendige Änderungen in der ornithologischen Nomenclatur.” Ornithologische Monatsberichte 12, no. 2 (1904): 22–27, 25.

Hirundapus Hodgson, 1837

Hirund-apus B. H. Hodgson. “Additions to the Ornithology of Népal.” Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 5, 60 (“1836” [1837]): 770–781, 780.

Hirundapus Z. Gerbe. “Hirondelle. Hirundo. Ois.” In Dictionnaire universel d’histoire naturelle. Résumant et complétant tous les faits présentés par les Encyclopédistes, les anciens dictionnaires scientifiques, les Œuvres complètes de Buffon, et les meilleurs traités spéciaux sur les diverses branches des sciences naturelles. Donnant la description des êtres et des divers phénomènes de la nature, l’étymologie et la définition des noms scientifiques, et les principales applications des corps organiques et inorganiques à l’agriculture, à la médecine, aux arts industriels, etc., edited by Charles d’Orbigny. Paris: Renard, Martinet; Langlois and Leclercq; and Fortin, Masson, 1845, 16:635–652, 651.

Hirundapus caudacutus (Latham, 1801) White-throated Needletail

Hirundo caudacuta Joannis Latham [John Latham]. Supplementum indicis ornithologici; sive, systematis ornithologiæ. Londini [London]: G. Leigh, J. and S. Sotheby, 1801:lvii.

[Hirundapus] caudacuta G. R. Gray. Hand-list of Genera and Species of Birds, Distinguishing Those Contained in the British Museum. Pt. 1, Accipitres, Fissirostres, Tenuirostres, and Dentirostres. London: Trustees [of the British Museum], 1869:67.

Hirundinapus caudacutus Tommaso Salvadori. Ornitologia della Papuasia e delle Molucche. Torino [Turin]: Stamperia Reale G. B. Paravia, 1880:536.

Hirundapus caudacutus Gregory M. Mathews. The Birds of Australia. London: Witherby, 1918, 7, pt. 3: 269. (Collated and republished in The Birds of Australia. London: Witherby, 1919, 7:269.)

Chaetura Stephens, 1826

Chætura James Francis Stephens. General Zoology; or, Systematic Natural History, Commenced by the Late George Shaw M.D. F.R.S. Vol. 13, pt. 2, Birds. London: J. and A. Arch; Longman, Rees; E. Jeffery and Son; J. Mawman; Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy; J. Booth; Sherwood; G. B. Whittaker; R. Scholey; S. Bagster; Rodwell and Martin; Saunders and Hodgson; Hamilton, Adams; Simpkin and Marshall; J. Duncan; T. and J. Allman; W. J. and J. Maynard; and Wightman and Cramp, 1826:76.

Chaetura pelagica (Linnaeus, 1758) Chimney Swift

[Hirundo] pelagica Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:192.

[Hirundo] Pelasgica Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 12th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1766, 1:345.

Ch[ætura] pelasgica James Francis Stephens. General Zoology; or, Systematic Natural History, Commenced by the Late George Shaw M.D. F.R.S. Vol. 13, pt. 2, Birds. London: J. and A. Arch; Longman, Rees; E. Jeffery and Son; J. Mawman; Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy; J. Booth; Sherwood; G. B. Whittaker; R. Scholey; S. Bagster; Rodwell and Martin; Saunders and Hodgson; Hamilton, Adams; Simpkin and Marshall; J. Duncan; T. and J. Allman; W. J. and J. Maynard; and Wightman and Cramp, 1826:76.

Chætura pelagica S. F. Baird. “Chætura pelagica, Baird. Chimney Swift.” In A History of North American Birds, by S. F. Baird, T. M. Brewer and R. Ridgway. Part 1, Land Birds. Boston: Little, Brown, 1874, 2:432.

Cypsiurus Lesson, 1843

Cypsiurus R. Lesson. “Index ornithologique [Part ??].” L’Écho du monde savant, année 10, no. 6 (1843): cols. 133–135, col. 134.

Cypsiurus parvus (Lichtenstein, 1823) African Palm Swift

[Cypselus] parvus H. Lichtenstein. Verzeichniss der Doubletten des Zoologischen Museums der Königl. Universität zu Berlin, nebst Beschreibung vieler bisher unbekannter Arten von Säugethieren, Vögeln, Amphibien und Fischen. Berlin: T. Trautwein, 1823:58.

[Cypsiurus] parvus G. R. Gray. Hand-list of Genera and Species of Birds, Distinguishing Those Contained in the British Museum. Pt. 1, Accipitres, Fissirostres, Tenuirostres, and Dentirostres. London: Trustees [of the British Museum], 1869:64.

Tachymarptis Roberts, 1922

Tachymarptis Austin Roberts. “Review of the Nomenclature of South African Birds.” Annals of the Transvaal Musuem 8, pt. 4 (1922): [187]–272, 216.

Tachymarptis melba (Linnaeus, 1758) Alpine Swift

[Hirundo] melba Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:192.

[Tachymarptis] melba R. K. Brooke. “Taxonomic and evolutionary notes on the subfamilies, tribes, genera and subgenera of the swifts (Aves: Apodidae).” Durban Museum Novitates 9, no. 1 (1970): [13]–24, 20.

Apus Scopoli, 1777

Apus Ioannis Ant. Scopoli [Giovanni Antonio Scopoli]. Introductio ad historiam naturalem sistens genera lapidum, plantarum, et animalium hactenus detecta, caracteribus essentialibus donata, in tribus divisa, subinde ad leges naturae. Pragae [Prague]: Wolfgangum Gerle, 1777:483.

Apus alexandri Hartert, 1901 Cape Verde Swift

Apus unicolor alexandri Ernst Hartert. “Aus den Wanderjahren eines Naturforschers. Reisen und Forschungen in Afrika, Asien und Amerika. Part 1.” Novitates zoologicae 8, no. 3 (1901): 221–355, 328.

Apus alexandri David Armitage Bannerman and W. Mary Bannerman. History of the Birds of the Cape Verde Islands. Birds of the Atlantic Islands Vol. 4. Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd, 1968:384.

Apus apus (Linnaeus, 1758) Common Swift

[Hirundo] Apus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:192.

Apus apus Henry Seebohm. A History of British Birds, with Coloured Illustrations of Their Eggs. R. H. Porter, Dulau, 1884, 2:292.

Apus unicolor (Jardine, 1830) Plain Swift

Cypselus unicolor William Jardine. “Observations on a Collection of Birds Lately Received from Madeira.” Edinburgh Journal of Natural and Geographical Science 1, no. 4 (1830): 241–245, 242, pl. 6.

Apus unicolor G. R. Gray. List of the specimens of birds in the collection of the British Museum. Pt. 2, sect. 1, Fissirostres. London: Trustees [of the British Museum], 1848:19.

Apus pallidus (Shelley, 1870) Pallid Swift

Cypselus pallidus G. Ernest Shelley. “To the Editor of ‘The Ibis’.” Ibis, n.s., 6, no. 23 (1870): 445–448, 445.

Apus pallidus Ernst Hartert. “Zusätzen und Berichtigungen.” In Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. Berlin: R. Friedländer und Sohn, 1922, Heft 18–19:2180. (Collated and republished in Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. Berlin: R. Friedländer und Sohn, 1922, Bd. 3:2180.)

Apus berliozi Ripley, 1966 Forbes-Watson’s Swift

Apus pallidus berliozi S. Dillon Ripley. “Le martinet pale de Socotra (Apus pallidus berliozi).” L’Oiseau et la Revue française d’ornithologie 35, Suppl. (1966): 101–102, 101.

Apus berliozi R. K. Brooke. “Apus berliozi Ripley, its races and siblings.” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 87, no. 1 (1969): 11–16, 11.

Apus pacificus (Latham, 1801) Pacific Swift

H[irundo] pacifica Joannis Latham [John Latham]. Supplementum indicis ornithologici; sive, systematis ornithologiæ. Londini [London]: G. Leigh, J. and S. Sotheby, 1801:lviii.

A[pus] pacificus Ernst Hartert. Podargidae, Caprimulgidae, und Macropterygidae. Aves, edited by A. Reichenow. Das Tierreich. Eine Zusammenstellung und Kennzeichnung der rezenten Tierformen, edited by Franz Eilhard Schulze, Lfg. 1. Berlin: R. Friedländer und Sohn, 1897:86.

Apus affinis (Gray, 1830) Little Swift

Cypselus affinis John Edward Gray. Illustrations of Indian Zoology, Chiefly Selected from the Collection of Major-General Hardwicke, FRS. London: Treuttel, Wurtz, Treuttel, Jun. and Richter, 1830, pt. 2, pl. 35, fig. 2. (Collated and republished as Illustrations of Indian Zoology, Chiefly Selected from the Collection of Major-General Hardwicke, FRS. London: Adolphus Richter, 1834, 1: pl. 35, fig. 2.)

A[pus] affinis Ernst Hartert. Podargidae, Caprimulgidae, und Macropterygidae. Aves, edited by A. Reichenow. Das Tierreich. Eine Zusammenstellung und Kennzeichnung der rezenten Tierformen, edited by Franz Eilhard Schulze, Lfg. 1. Berlin: R. Friedländer und Sohn, 1897:87.

Apus caffer (Lichtenstein, 1823) White-rumped Swift

C[ypselus] Caffer H. Lichtenstein. Verzeichniss der Doubletten des Zoologischen Museums der Königl. Universität zu Berlin, nebst Beschreibung vieler bisher unbekannter Arten von Säugethieren, Vögeln, Amphibien und Fischen. Berlin: T. Trautwein, 1823:58.

A[pus] caffer Ernst Hartert. Podargidae, Caprimulgidae, und Macropterygidae. Aves, edited by A. Reichenow. Das Tierreich. Eine Zusammenstellung und Kennzeichnung der rezenten Tierformen, edited by Franz Eilhard Schulze, Lfg. 1. Berlin: R. Friedländer und Sohn, 1897:87.

OTIDIDAE Rafinesque, 1815

Otidia C. S. Rafinesque. Analyse de la nature; ou, Tableau de l’univers et des corps organisés. Palerme [Palermo]: published by author, 1815:70.

Otididae [Lorenz] Oken. Review of Faune belge. I. Mammifères–Poissons, by E. de Selys-Longchamps [E. de Sélys Longchamps]. Isis von Oken, Jg. 1844, Heft 8 (1844): cols. 628–631, col. 630.

Otis Linnaeus, 1758

Otis Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th ed. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:154.

Otis tarda Linnaeus, 1758 Great Bustard

[Otis] Tarda Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th ed. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:154.

Ardeotis Le Maout, 1853

Ardeotis Emm. Le Maout. Histoire naturelle des oiseaux, suivant la classification de M. Isidore Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire, avec l’indication de leurs mœurs et de leurs rapports avec les arts, le commerce et l’agriculture. Paris: L. Curmer, 1853:339 (table), 340 (descr.).

Ardeotis arabs (Linnaeus, 1758) Arabian Bustard

[Otis] arabs Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th ed. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:154.

Ardeotis Arabs Emm. Le Maout. Histoire naturelle des oiseaux, suivant la classification de M. Isidore Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire, avec l’indication de leurs mœurs et de leurs rapports avec les arts, le commerce et l’agriculture. Paris: L. Curmer, 1853:340.

Chlamydotis Lesson, 1839

Chlamydotis R. P. Lesson. “Synopsis avium.” Revue zoologique 2 (February 1839): 46–47, 47.

Chlamydotis undulata (Jacquin, 1784) Houbara Bustard

Psophia undulata Joseph Franz von Jacquin. Beyträge zur Geschichte der Vögel. Wien [Vienna]: Christian Friederich Wappler, 1784:24.

Chlamydotis undulata James Lee Peters. Check-list of Birds of the World. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1934, 2:220.

Chlamydotis macqueenii (Gray, 1832) Macqueen’s Bustard

Otis Macqueenii John Edward Gray. Illustrations of Indian Zoology, Chiefly Selected from the Collection of Major-General Hardwicke, FRS. London: Treuttel, Wurtz, Treuttel, Jun. and Richter, 1832, pt. 12, pl. 47. Collated and republished in Illustrations of Indian Zoology, Chiefly Selected from the Collection of Major-General Hardwicke, FRS. London: Adolphus Richter, 1834, 2: pl. 47.

Chlamydotis Macqueenii Fr. W. Mäklin. “Några notiser om Chlamydotis Macqueenii Hardw. & Gray.” Öfversigt af Finska vetenskaps-societetens förhandlingar 13 (1871): 99–102, 99.

Tetrax Forster, 1817

Tetrax Thomas Forster. A Synoptical Catalogue of British Birds, Intended to Identify the Species Mentioned by Different Names in Several Catalogues Already Extant. Forming a Book of Reference to Observations on British Ornithology. London: Nichols, Son, and Bentley, 1817:20.

Tetrax tetrax (Linnaeus, 1758) Little Bustard

[Otis] Tetrax Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th ed. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:154.

[Tetrax] tetrax [Hinrich Lichtenstein]. Nomenclator avium Musei zoologici berolinensis = Namenverzeichniss der in der zoologischen Sammlung der Königlichen Universität zu Berlin aufgestellten Arten von Vögeln nach den in der neueren Systematik am meisten zur Geltung gekommenen Namen der Gattungen und ihrer Unterabtheilungen. Berlin: Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1854:88.

CUCULIDAE Leach, 1820

Cuculidæ W. E. Leach. Synopsis of the Contents of the British Museum. 17th ed. London: Richard and Arthur Taylor, 1820:68.

Centropus Illiger, 1811

Centropus Caroli Illigeri [Karl Illeger]. Prodromus systematis mammalium et avium. Additis terminis zoographicis utriusque classis, eorumque versione germanica. Berolini [Berlin]: C. Salfeld, 1811:205.

Centropus senegalensis (Linnaeus, 1766) Senegal Coucal

[Cuculus] senegalensis Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 12th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1766, 1:169.

Centropus Senegalensis Henricus Kuhl [Heinrich Kuhl]. Buffoni et Daubentoni figurarum avium coloratarum nomina systematica. Edited with an introduction and index by Theodorus van Swinderen. Groningae [Groningen]: J. Oomkens, 1820:6.

Centropus superciliosus Hemprich and Ehrenberg, 1829 White-browed Coucal

Centropus superciliosus Friderici Guilelmi Hemprich [Wilhelm Friedrich Hemprich] and Christiani Godofredi Ehrenberg [Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg]. Symbolae physicae; seu, Icones et descriptiones corporum naturalium novorum aut minus cognitorum quae ex itineribus per Libyam Aegyptum Nubiam Dongalam Syriam Arabiam et Habessiniam. Pars zoologica I. Aves. Berolini [Berlin]: Ex Officina academica, “1828” [1833]: sig. z [p. 19], n3.

Clamator Kaup, 1829

Clamator Kaup Skizzirte Entwickelungs-Geschichte und natürliches System der europäischen Thierwelt. Erster Theil welcher die Vogelsäugethiere und Vögel nebst Andeutung der Entstehung der letzteren aus Amphibien enthält. Darmstadt: Carl Wilhelm Leske, 1829: “35” [53].

Clamator coromandus (Linnaeus, 1766) Chestnut-winged Cuckoo

[Cuculus] coromandus Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 12th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1766, 1:171.

Clamator coromandus Leonhard Stejneger. “The Generic Name Coccystes Untenable.” Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 15, no. 8 (1902): 37.

Clamator glandarius (Linnaeus, 1758) Great Spotted Cuckoo

[Cuculus] glandarius Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th ed. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:111.

Clamator glandarius Leonhard Stejneger. “The Generic Name Coccystes Untenable.” Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 15, no. 8 (1902): 37.

Clamator jacobinus (Boddaert, 1783) Jacobin Cuckoo

Cuculus Jacobinus [P.] Boddaert. Table des planches enluminéez d’histoire naturelle de M. d’Aubenton. Avec les denominations de M. M. de Buffon, Brisson, Edwards, Linnæus et Latham, precedé d’une notice des principaux ouvrages zoologiques enluminés. Utrecht, 1783:53.

Clamator jacobinus Leonhard Stejneger. “The Generic Name Coccystes Untenable.” Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 15, no. 8 (1902): 37.

Coccyzus Vieillot, 1816

Coccyzus L. P. Vieillot Analyse d’une nouvelle ornithologie élémentaire. Paris: Deterville, 1816:28.

Coccyzus americanus (Linnaeus, 1758) Yellow-billed Cuckoo

[Cuculus] americanus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th ed. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:111.

Coccyzus americanus Charles Bonaparte. “Observations on the Nomenclature of Wilson’s Ornithology.” Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 3, pt. 2 (1824): 340–371, 367.

Coccyzus erythropthalmus (Wilson, 1811) Black-billed Cuckoo

Cuculus erythropthalma Alexander Wilson. American Ornithology; or, The Natural History of the Birds of the United States. Illustrated with Plates Engraved and Colored from Original Drawings Taken from Nature. Philadelphia, PA: Bradford and Inskeep, 1811, 4:16, pl. 28, fig. 2.

C[occyzus] erythropthalmus Charles Bonaparte. “Observations on the Nomenclature of Wilson’s Ornithology.” Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 3, pt. 2 (1824): 340–371, 367.

Eudynamys Vigors and Horsfield, 1827

Eudynamys N. A. Vigors and Thomas Horsfield. “A Description of the Australian Birds in the Collection of the Linnean Society, with an Attempt at Arranging Them According to Their Natural Affinities [Part 1].” Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 15, pt. 1 (1826): 170–331, 303.

Eudynamys scolopaceus (Linnaeus, 1758) Asian Koel

[Cuculus] scolopaceus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th ed. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:111.

Eudynamys scolopaceus Gregory M. Mathews. Systema avium Australasianarum: A Systematic List of the Birds of the Australasian Region. London: British Ornithologists’ Union, 1927:417.

Chrysococcyx Boie, 1826

Chrysococcyx F. Boie. “Generalübersicht der ornithologischen Ordnungen, Familien und Gattungen.” Isis von Oken, Jg. 1826, Heft 10 (1826): cols. “975” [969]–981, col. 977.

Chrysococcyx klaas (Stephens, 1815) Klaas’s Cuckoo

Cuculus Klaas James Francis Stephens. General Zoology; or, Systematic Natural History, Commenced by the Late George Shaw M.D. F.R.S. Vol. 9, pt. 1, Birds. London: G. Wilkie; J. Walker; J. Stockdale; J. and A. Arch; Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme and Brown; E. Jeffery; Sherwood, Neeley and Jones; Law and Whittaker; Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy; R. Scholey; J. Black; W. Lowe; J. Booth; Gale and Fenner; S. Bagster; J. Robinson; J. Rodwell; Walker and Edwards; Harper, 1815:128.

C[uculus] Klaasii L. P. Vieillot. Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature. Ornithologie. Paris: Agasse, 1823, livr. 93, 1333. (Collated and republished in L. P. Vieillot. Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature. Ornithologie. Paris: Agasse, 1823, 3:1333.)

[Chrysococcyx] Clasii Eduard Rüppell. Systematische Uebersicht der Vögel Nord-Ost-Afrika’s, nebst Abbildung und Beschreibung von fünfzig Theils unbekannten, Theils noch nicht bildlich dargestellten Arten. Frankfurt a. M. [am Main]: S. Schmerber’schen Buchhandlung, 1845:96.

Chrysococcyx klaasi Carolo Luciano Bonaparte [Charles Lucien Bonaparte]. Conspectus generum avium. Lugduni Batavorum [Leiden]: E. J. Brill, 1850:105.

Chr[ysococcyx] Klasii Edward Blyth. Catalogue of the Birds in the Museum Asiatic Society. Calcutta: J. Thomas, Baptist Mission Press, “1849” [1852]: 73.

Chrysococcyx klaas Carolo Luciano Bonaparte [Charles Lucien Bonaparte]. Conspectus volucrum anisodactylorum. Parigi [Paris]: L. Martinet, 1854:13.

[Chrysococcyx] Claasii G. Hartlaub. System der Ornithologie Westafrica’s. Bremen: Verlag von C. Schünemann, 1857:190.

Chrysococcyx Klasi Thomas Horsfield and Frederic Moore. A Catalogue of the Birds in the Museum of the Hon. East-India Company. London: Wm. H. Allen, 1858, 2:705.

Chrysococcyx caprius (Boddaert, 1783) Diederik Cuckoo

Cuculus caprius Boddaert. Table des planches enluminéez d’histoire naturelle de M. d’Aubenton. Avec les denominations de M. M. de Buffon, Brisson, Edwards, Linnæus et Latham, precedé d’une notice des principaux ouvrages zoologiques enluminés. Utrecht, 1783:40.

C[uculus] Cupreus L. P. Vieillot. Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature. Ornithologie. Paris: Agasse, 1823, livr. 93, 1332. (Collated and republished in L. P. Vieillot. Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature. Ornithologie. Paris: Agasse, 3:1332.)

Chr[ysococcyx] cupreus Edward Blyth. Catalogue of the Birds in the Museum Asiatic Society. Calcutta: J. Thomas, Baptist Mission Press, “1849” [1852]: 73.

Chrysococcyx caprius Claude H. B. Grant. “On a Collection of Birds from British East Africa and Uganda, Presented to the British Museum by Capt. G. P. Cosens. Part 3: Colii–Pici.” With Field Notes by the Collector, Willoughby P. Lowe. Ibis, 10th ser., 3, no. 3 (1915): 400–473, 417.

Cacomantis Müller, 1843

Cacomantis Salomon Müller. “Bijdragen tot de kennis van Timor en eenige andere naburige eilanden.” In Verhandelingen over de natuurlijke geschiedenis der Nederlandsche overzeesche bezittingen. Land- en volkenkunde, by Salomon Müller, edited by C. J. Temminck. Leiden: S. and J. Luchtmans and C. C. van der Hoek, 1843, pt. 6:161–192, 177. (Collated and republished in “Bijdragen tot de kennis van Timor en eenige andere naburige eilanden.” In Verhandelingen over de natuurlijke geschiedenis der Nederlandsche overzeesche bezittingen. [Vol. 3], Land- en volkenkunde, by Salomon Müller, edited by C. J. Temminck. Leiden: S. and J. Luchtmans and C. C. van der Hoek, [1847?]: [129]–320, 177n*.)

Cacomantis passerinus (Vahl, 1797) Grey-bellied Cuckoo

[Cuculus] passerinus M. Vahl. “Beskrivelse paa trende ubekiendte fugle af siøge-slægten.” Skrivter af Naturhistorie-Selskabet 4, Hefte 1 (1797): 56–61, 57.

[Cacomantis] passerinus Jean Cabanis and Ferdinand Heine. Museum Heineanum. Verzeichniss der ornithologischen Sammlung des Oberamtmann Ferdinand Heine, auf Gut St. Burchard vor Halberstadt. Mit kritischen Anmerkungen und Beschreibung fast sämmtlicher Arten systematisch bearbeitet. Theil 4, Die Klettervögel, Heft 1, Kuckuke und Faulvögel. Halberstadt: Frantz’schen Buchhandlung (G. Loose), 1862:18.

Hierococcyx Müller, 1845

Hierococcyx Salomon Müller. “Bijdragen tot de kennis van Timor en eenige andere naburige eilanden.” In Verhandelingen over de natuurlijke geschiedenis der Nederlandsche overzeesche bezittingen. Land- en volkenkunde, by Salomon Müller, edited by C. J. Temminck. Leiden: S. and J. Luchtmans and C. C. van der Hoek, 1845, pt. 8:225–256, 233n†. (Collated and republished in “Bijdragen tot de kennis van Timor en eenige andere naburige eilanden.” In Verhandelingen over de natuurlijke geschiedenis der Nederlandsche overzeesche bezittingen. [Vol. 3], Land- en volkenkunde, by Salomon Müller, edited by C. J. Temminck. Leiden: S. and J. Luchtmans and C. C. van der Hoek, [1847?]: [129]–320, 233.)

Hierococcyx varius (Vahl, 1797) Common Hawk-Cuckoo

[Cuculus] Varius M. Vahl. “Beskrivelse paa trende ubekiendte fugle af siøge-slægten.” Skrivter af Naturhistorie-Selskabet 4, Hefte 1 (1797): 56–61, 61.

Chrysococcyx varius Thomas Horsfield and Frederic Moore. A Catalogue of the Birds in the Museum of the Hon. East-India Company. London: Wm. H. Allen, “1856–8” [1858], 2:700.

Cuculus Linnaeus, 1758

Cuculus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th ed. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:110.

Cuculus poliocephalus Latham, 1790 Lesser Cuckoo

[Cuculus] poliocephalus Joannis Latham [John Latham]. Index ornithologicus; sive, Systema ornithologiæ, complectens avium divisionem in classes, ordines, genera, species, ipsarumque varietates, adjectis synonymis, locis, descriptionibus, &c. Londini [London]: published by author, 1790, 1:214.

Cuculus optatus Gould, 1845 Oriental Cuckoo

Cuculus optatus John Gould. “Descriptions of a New Trogon and Seven New Birds from Australia.” Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pt. 8, no. 145 (1845): 18–20, 18.

Cuculus canorus Linnaeus, 1758 Common Cuckoo

[Cuculus] canorus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th ed. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:110.

PTEROCLIDAE Bonaparte, 1831

Pteroclinae Carlo Luciano Bonaparte [Charles Lucien Bonaparte]. Saggio di una distribuzione metodica degli animali vertebrati. Roma [Rome]: Presso Antonio Boulzaler, 1831:33.

Pteroclidae [Lorenz Oken] Summary of Versuch einer methodischen Eintheilung der Wirbelthiere, by C. L. Bonaparte. Isis von Oken, Jrg. 1832, Heft 3 (1832): cols. 283–320, col. 305.

Syrrhaptes Illiger, 1811

Syrrhaptes Caroli Illigeri [Karl Illiger]. Prodromus systematis mammalium et avium. Additis terminis zoographicis utriusque classis, eorumque versione germanica. Berolini [Berlin]: C. Salfeld, 1811:243.

Syrrhaptes paradoxus (Pallas, 1773) Pallas’s Sandgrouse

Tetrao paradoxa P.S. Pallas. “Anhang zum zweiten Theil. Descriptiones animalium.” In Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Rußischen Reichs. Pt. 2, Buch 2, Reise durch verschiedene Theile des Rußischen Reichs im 1771sten Jahr. St. Petersburg: Kaiserlichen Academie der Wissenschaften, 1773:712.

Syrrhaptes paradoxus H. Lichtenstein. “Naturhistorischer Anhang.” In Reise von Orenburg nach Buchara, by Eduard Eversmann. With an Afghan Language Glossary and Accompanied by a Natural-historical Appendix and Preface by H. Lichtenstein. Berlin: E. H. G. Christiani, 1823:134.

Pterocles Temminck, 1815

Pterocles C. J. Temminck. Histoire naturelle générale des pigeons et des gallinacés. Amsterdam: J. C. Sepp & Fils, 1815, 3:238, 712.

Pterocles alchata (Linnaeus, 1766) Pin-tailed Sandgrouse

[Tetrao] Alchata Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 12th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1766, 1:276.

Pterocles Alchata James Francis Stephens. General Zoology; or, Systematic Natural History, Commenced by the Late George Shaw M.D. F.R.S. Vol. 11, pt. 2, Birds. London: J. Walker; Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme and Brown; J. and A. Arch; E. Jeffery; Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy; R. Scholey; Sherwood, Neely and Jones; G. and W. B. Whittaker; J. Black and Son; W. Lowe; J. Booth; S. Bagster; J. Mawman; R. Fenner; Ogle; Rodwell; J. Robinson; and J. Harper, 1819:311.

Pterocles exustus Temminck, 1825 Chestnut-bellied Sandgrouse

Pterocles exustus C. J. Temminck. “Ganga ventre-brulé. Pterocles exustus. Temm.” In Nouveau recueil de planches coloriées d’oiseaux, pour servir de suite et de complément aux planches enluminées de Buffon, by C. J. Temminck and Meiffren Laugier de Chartrouse [G. M. J. Meiffren]. Paris: F. G. Levrault, 1825, livr. 60: pl. 354 & livr. 61: pl. 360, name on nearby pages. (Collated and republished in Nouveau recueil de planches coloriées d’oiseaux, pour servir de suite et de complément aux planches enluminées de Buffon, édition in-folio et in-4⁰ de l’Imprimerie royale, 1770, by C. J. Temminck and Meiffren Laugier de Chartrouse [G. M. J. Meiffren]. Paris: F. G. Levrault, 1838, 5: pl. 354, 360, name on following page [79].)

Pterocles senegallus (Linnaeus, 1771) Spotted Sandgrouse

[Tetrao] senegallus Car. a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. Mantissa plantarum altera. Generum editionis VI et Specierum editionis II. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1771:526.

Pterocles Senegalus [John Edward Gray]. List of the Specimens of Birds in the Collection of the British Museum. “Pt. 3” [Pt. 2, Sect. 2], Gallinæ, Grallæ and Anseres. London: Trustees [of the British Museum], 1844:50.

[Pterocles] senegalensis Eduard Rüppell. Systematische Uebersicht der Vögel Nord-Ost-Afrika’s, nebst Abbildung und Beschreibung von fünfzig Theils unbekannten, Theils noch nicht bildlich dargestellten Arten. Frankfurt a. M. [am Main]: S. Schmerber’schen Buchhandlung, 1845:106.

Pterocles senegallus G. E. Shelley. A Handbook to the Birds of Egypt. London: John Van Voorst, 1872:220.

Pterocles orientalis (Linnaeus, 1758) Black-bellied Sandgrouse

[Tetrao] orientalis Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th ed. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:161.

Pterocles orientalis Ernst Hartert. Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. R. Friedländer & Sohn, 1920, Heft 11–12 (Bd. 2, Heft 5–6): 1502. (Collated and republished in Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. R. Friedländer & Sohn, 1921, Bd. 2:1502.)

Pterocles coronatus Lichtenstein, 1823 Crowned Sandgrouse

Pt[erocles] coronatus H. Lichtenstein. Verzeichniss der Doubletten des Zoologischen Museums der Königl. Universität zu Berlin, nebst Beschreibung vieler bisher unbekannter Arten von Säugethieren, Vögeln, Amphibien und Fischen. Berlin: T. Trautwein, 1823:65.

Pterocles lichtensteinii Temminck, 1825 Lichtenstein’s Sandgrouse

Pterocles Lichtensteinii C. J. Temminck. “Ganga Lichtenstein. Pterocles Lichtensteinii. Temm.” In Nouveau recueil de planches coloriées d’oiseaux, pour servir de suite et de complément aux planches enluminées de Buffon, by C. J. Temminck and Meiffren Laugier de Chartrouse [G. M. J. Meiffren]. Paris: F. G. Levrault, 1825, livr. 60: pl. 355 & livr. 61: pl. 361, name on nearby pages. (Collated and republished in Nouveau recueil de planches coloriées d’oiseaux, pour servir de suite et de complément aux planches enluminées de Buffon, édition in-folio et in-4⁰ de l’Imprimerie royale, 1770, by C. J. Temminck and Meiffren Laugier de Chartrouse [G. M. J. Meiffren]. Paris: F. G. Levrault, 1838, 5: pl. 355, 361, name on following page [71].)

COLUMBIDAE Leach, 1820

Columbidæ W. E. Leach. Synopsis of the Contents of the British Museum. 17th ed. London: Richard and Arthur Taylor, 1820:68.

Columba Linnaeus, 1758

Columba Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th ed. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:162.

Columba livia Gmelin, 1789 Rock Dove

[Columba] livia Jo. Fridr. Gmelin. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species: cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, by Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. 13th edn., edited by Jo. Frid. Gmelin. Lugduni [Lyon]: J. B. Delamolliere, 1789, 1, pt. 2:769.

Columba guinea Linnaeus, 1758 Speckled Pigeon

[Columba] guinea Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th ed. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:163.

Columba oenas Linnaeus, 1758 Stock Dove

[Columba] Oenas Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th ed. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:162.

Columba eversmanni Bonaparte, 1856 Yellow-eyed Pigeon

Columba eversmanni Ch. Bonaparte. “Additions et corrections au coup d’œil sur l’ordre de pigeons, et à la partie correspondante du Conspectus Avium.” Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l’Académie des sciences 43, no. 18 (1856): 833–841, 838.

Columba palumbus Linnaeus, 1758 Common Wood Pigeon

[Columba] Palumbus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th ed. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:163.

Columba trocaz Heineken, 1829 Trocaz Pigeon

[Columba] Trocaz C. Heineken [K. Heineken]. “Notice of Some of the Birds of Madeira.” Edinburgh Journal of Science, n.s., 1, no. 2 (1829): 229–233, 230.

Columba bollii Godman, 1872 Bolle’s Pigeon

F. Du Cane Godman [F. DuCane Godman]. “Notes on the Resident and Migratory Birds of Madeira and the Canaries [Part 2].” Ibis, 3rd ser., 2, no. 7 (1872): [209]–224, 217.

Columba junoniae Hartert, 1916 Laurel Pigeon

Columba junoniae Ernst Hartert. “Notes on Pigeons.” Novitates zoologicae 23, no. 1 (1916): 78–88, 86.

Streptopelia Bonaparte, 1855

Streptopelia Charles-Lucien Bonaparte [Charles Lucien Bonaparte]. “Coup d’œil sur les pigeons [Part 4].” Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l’Académie des sciences 40, no. 1 (1855): 15–24, 17.

Streptopelia turtur (Linnaeus, 1758) European Turtle Dove

[Columba] Turtur Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th ed. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:164.

Streptopelia turtur Ernst Hartert. “Streptopelia turtur.” In A Hand-list of British birds, With an Account of the Distribution of Each Species in the British Isles and Abroad, by Ernst Hartert, F. C. R. Jourdain, N. F. Ticehurst and H. F. Witherby. London: Witherby, 1912:161.

Streptopelia lugens (Rüppell, 1837) Dusky Turtle Dove

Columba lugens Eduard Rüppell. Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Vögel. Frankfurt am Main: Siegmund Schmerber, 1837, Lief. 9: 64, pl. 22, fig. 2. (Collated and republished as Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. [Pt. 2], Vögel. Frankfurt am Main: Siegmund Schmerber, 1840:64, pl. 22, fig. 2.

[Streptopelia] lugens Charles-Lucien Bonaparte [Charles Lucien Bonaparte]. “Coup d’œil sur les pigeons [Part 4].” Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l’Académie des sciences 40, no. 1 (1855): 15–24, 18.

Streptopelia orientalis (Latham, 1790) Oriental Turtle Dove

[Columba] orientalis Joannis Latham [John Latham]. Index ornithologicus; sive, Systema ornithologiæ, complectens avium divisionem in classes, ordines, genera, species, ipsarumque varietates, adjectis synonymis, locis, descriptionibus, &c. Londini [London]: published by author, 1790, 2:606.

Streptopelia orientalis Ernst Hartert. “Streptopelia orientalis.” In A Hand-list of British birds, With an Account of the Distribution of Each Species in the British Isles and Abroad, by Ernst Hartert, F. C. R. Jourdain, N. F. Ticehurst and H. F. Witherby. London: Witherby, 1912:162.

S. o. meena (Sykes, 1832)

Columba Meena W. H. Sykes. “Catalogue of Birds (Systematically Arranged) of the Rasorial, Grallatorial, and Natatorial Orders, Observed in the Dukhun [Part 2 of Catalogue of Birds Observed in the Dukhun].” Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London, pt. 2, no. 23 (1832): 149–172, 149.

Streptopelia orientalis meena Ernst Hartert. Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. R. Friedländer & Sohn, 1920, Heft 11–12 (Bd. 2, Heft 5–6): 1490. (Collated and republished in Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. R. Friedländer & Sohn, 1921, Bd. 2:1490.)

S. o. orientalis (Latham, 1790)

Streptopelia decaocto (Frivaldszky, 1838) Eurasian Collared Dove

Columba decaocto Imre Frivaldszky [Emerich Frivaldszky von Frivald]. “Újabb közlések a’ Balkány’ vidékén tett természettudományi utazásról.” [Recent reports of a scientific excursion to the Balkan region.] A’ magyar tudós társaság’ évkönyvei [Yearbook of the Hungarian Society of Scientists] 3, pt. 3 (“1834–1836” [1838]): 183, pl. 8.

Streptopelia decaocto O. Heinroth. “Deutsche Ornithologische Gesellschaft. Bericht über die Mai-Sitzung 1911.” Journal für Ornithologie 59, no. 4 (1911): 707–711, 710.

Streptopelia decipiens (Hartlaub & Finsch, 1870) Mourning Collared Dove

Turtur decipiens O. Finsch and G. Hartlaub. Die Vögel Ost-Afrikas. Vol. 4 of Baron Carl Claus von Deer Decken’s Reisen in Ost-Afrika in den Jahren 1859–1865, edited by [Otto Kersten]. Leipzig: C. F. Winter’sche Verlagshandlung, 1870:544.

[Streptopelia] decipiens G. E. Shelley. “On the Columbidæ of the Ethiopian Region.” Ibis, 5th ser., 1, no. 3 (1883): 258–331, 298.

Streptopelia semitorquata (Rüppell, 1837) Red-eyed Dove

Columba semitorquata Eduard Rüppell. Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Vögel. Frankfurt am Main: Siegmund Schmerber, 1837, Lief. 9: 66, pl. 23, fig. 2. (Collated and republished in Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. [Pt. 2], Vögel. Frankfurt am Main: Siegmund Schmerber, 1840:66, pl. 22, fig. 2.)

[Streptopelia] semitorquatus George Robert Gray. Hand-list of Genera and Species of Birds, Distinguishing Those Contained in the British Museum. Pt. 2, Conirostres, Scansores, Columbæ, and Gallinæ. London: Trustees [of the British Museum], 1870:238.

Streptopelia tranquebarica (Hermann, 1804) Red Collared Dove

Columba tranquebarica Johannis Hermann [Johann Hermann]. Observationes zoologicae quibus novae complures, aliaeque animalium species describuntur et illustrantur. Argentorati [Strassburg]: Amandum Koenig, 1804:200.

Streptopelia tranquebarica James Lee Peters. Check-list of Birds of the World. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1937, 3:97.

Spilopelia Sundevall, 1873

Spilopelia Carl J. Sundevall. Methodi naturalis avium disponendarum tentamen = Försök till fogelklassens naturenliga uppställnung. Stockholm: Samson & Wallin, 1873, pt. 2:100.

Spilopelia senegalensis (Linnaeus, 1766) Laughing Dove

[Columba] senegalensis Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 12th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1766, 1:283.

Spilopelia senegalensis R. Schodde and I. J. Mason. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 37.2, Aves (Columbidae to Coraciidae). Collingwood: CSIRO Publishers, 1997:20.

Turtur Boddaert, 1783

Turtur [P.] Boddaert. Table des planches enluminéez d’histoire naturelle de M. d’Aubenton. Avec les denominations de M. M. de Buffon, Brisson, Edwards, Linnæus et Latham, precedé d’une notice des principaux ouvrages zoologiques enluminés. Utrecht, 1783:10.

Turtur abyssinicus (Sharpe, 1902) Black-billed Wood Dove

Chalcopelia abyssinica R. Bowdler Sharpe. “Remarks on the Genus Chalcopelia: C. abyssinica and C. delicatula, nn. spp.” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 12, no. 90 (1902): 83–84, 83.

Turtur abyssinicus James Lee Peters. Check-list of Birds of the World. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1937, 3:112.

Oena Swainson, 1837

Œna William Swainson. On the Natural History and Classification of Birds. The Cabinet Cyclopædia, vol. 92, edited by Dionysius Lardner. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, and John Taylor, 1837, 2:349.

Oena capensis (Linnaeus, 1766) Namaqua Dove

[Columba] capensis Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 12th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1766, 1:286.

O[ena] [Capensis] William Swainson. On the Natural History and Classification of Birds. The Cabinet Cyclopædia, vol. 92, edited by Dionysius Lardner. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, and John Taylor, 1837, 2:349.

Zenaida Bonaparte, 1838

Zenaida Charles Lucian Bonaparte [Charles Lucien Bonaparte]. A Geographical and Comparative List of the Birds of Europe and North America. London: John Van Voorst, 1838:41.

Zenaida macroura (Linnaeus, 1758) Mourning Dove

[Columba] macroura Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th ed. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:164.

Zenaidura macroura Robert Ridgway. “Some Emended Names of North American Birds.” Proceedings of the United States National Museum 8, no. 23 (1885): 354–356, 355.

Zenaida macroura Platte M. Thorne. “List of Birds Observed in the Vicinity of Fort Keogh, Montana, from July, 1888, to September 1892.” Auk 12, no. 3 (1895): 211–219, 214.

Treron Vieillot, 1816

Treron L. P. Vieillot. Analyse d’une nouvelle ornithologie élémentaire. Paris: Deterville, 1816:49.

Treron waalia (Meyer, 1793) Bruce’s Green Pigeon

Columba Waalia Friedrich Albrecht Anton Meyer. Systematisch-summarische Uebersicht der neuesten zoologischen Entdeckungen in Neuholland und Afrika. Nebst zwey andern zoologischen Abhandlungen. Leipzig: Dykischen Buchhandlung, 1793:128.

Treron Waalia O. Finsch and G. Hartlaub. Die Vögel Ost-Afrikas. Vol. 4 of Baron Carl Claus von Deer Decken’s Reisen in Ost-Afrika in den Jahren 1859–1865, edited by [Otto Kersten]. Leipzig: C. F. Winter’sche Verlagshandlung, 1870: [533].

RALLIDAE Rafinesque, 1815

Rallia C. S. Rafinesque. Analyse de la nature; ou, Tableau de l’univers et des corps organisés. Palerme [Palermo]: published by author, 1815:70.

Rallidæ Nicholas Aylward Vigors. “Observations on the Natural Affinities That Connect the Orders and Families of Birds.” Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 14, pt. 3 (1825): 395–517, 417.

Rallus Linnaeus, 1758

Rallus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th ed. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:153.

Rallus aquaticus Linnaeus, 1758 Water Rail

[Rallus] aquaticus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th ed. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:153.

Crecopsis Sharpe, 1893

Crecopsis R. Bowdler Sharpe. “On the Classification of the Rallidæ.” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 1, no. 5 (1893): 26–29, 28.

Crecopsis egregia (Peters, 1854) African Crake

Ortygometra (Crex) egregia [W.] Peters. “Abbildungen von Vögel zu seinem Reisewerke.” Bericht über die zur Bekanntmachung geeigneten Verhandlungen der Konigl. Preuss. Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, März 1854:134.

Crecopsis egregia R. Bowdler Sharpe. Catalogue of the Birds in the British Museum. Vol. 23, Catalogue of the Fulicariæ (Rallidæ and Heliornithidæ) and Alectorides (Aramidæ, Eurypygidæ, Mesitidæ, Rhinochetidæ, Gruidæ, Psophiidæ, and Otididæ) in the Collection of the British Museum. London: Trustees [of the British Museum (Natural History)], 1894:81.

Crex Bechstein, 1803

Crex Jahann Matthäus Bechstein. Ornithologisches Taschenbuch von und für Deutschland; oder, Kurze Beschreibung aller Vögel Deutschlands für Liebhaber dieses Theils der Naturgeschichte. Theil 2, Wasservögel. Leipzig: Carl Friedrich Enoch Richter, 1803:336.

Crex crex (Linnaeus, 1758) Corn Crake

[Rallus] Crex Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th ed. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:153.

Crex crex R. Bowdler Sharpe. “Crex crex (L.) Corn Crake.” In The Birds of South Africa, by Edgar Leopold Layard. Rev. ed., revised and augmented by R. Bowdler Sharpe. London: Bernard Quaritch, “1875–1884” [1884]: 611.

Porzana Vieillot, 1816

Porzana L. P. Vieillot Analyse d’une nouvelle ornithologie élémentaire. Paris: Deterville, 1816:61.

Porzana carolina (Linnaeus, 1758) Sora

[Rallus] carolinus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th ed. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:153.

Porzana carolina Spencer F. Baird. Reports of Explorations and Surveys, to Ascertain the Most Practicable and Economical Route for a Railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, Made under the Direction of the Secretary of War, in 1853–6, According to Acts of Congress of March 8, 1853, May 31, 1854, and August 5, 1854. Vol. 9, General Report upon the Zoology of the Several Pacific Railroad Routes. Pt. 2 Birds, by Spencer F. Baird, with the co-operation of John Cassin and George N. Lawrence. House of Representatives Report Ex. Doc. No. 91 (1858): 749.

Porzana porzana (Linnaeus, 1766) Spotted Crake

[Rallus] Porzana Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 12th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1766, 1:262.

Porzana porzana R. Bowdler Sharpe. “Porzana porzana (L.) Spotted Crake.” In The Birds of South Africa, by Edgar Leopold Layard. Rev. ed., revised and augmented by R. Bowdler Sharpe. London: Bernard Quaritch, “1875–1884” [1884]: 611.

Paragallinula Sangster, Garcia and Trewick, 2015

Paragallinula George Sangster, Juan Carlos García-R and Steve A. Trewick. “A New Genus for the Lesser Moorhen Gallinula angulata Sundevall, 1850 (Aves, Rallidae).” European Journal of Taxonomy, no. 153 (2015): 1–8, 4.

Paragallinula angulata (Sundevall, 1850) Lesser Moorhen

Gallinula angulata [C. J.] Sundevall. “Wahlbergs foglar från södra Afrika.” Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-akademiens forhandlingar 7, no. 4 (1850): 96–111, 110.

[Paragallinula] angula George Sangster, Juan Carlos García-R and Steve A. Trewick. “A New Genus for the Lesser Moorhen Gallinula angulata Sundevall, 1850 (Aves, Rallidae).” European Journal of Taxonomy, no. 153 (2015): 1–8, 4.

Gallinula Brisson, 1760

Gallinula M. J. Brisson. Ornithologie; ou, Méthode contenant la division des oiseaux en ordres, sections, genres, especes & leurs variétés. A laquelle on a joint une description exacte de chaque espece, avec les citations des auteurs qui en ont traité, les noms quils leur ont donnés, ceux que leur ont donnés les différentes nations, & les noms vulgaires = Ornithologia; sive, Synopsis methodica sistens avium divisionem in ordines, sectiones, genera, species, ipsarumque varietates. Cum accurata cujusque speciei descriptione, citacionibus auctorum de iis tractantium, nominibus eis ab ipsis & nationibus impositis, nominibusque vulgaribus. Paris: Cl. Jean-Baptiste Bauche, 1760, 1:50 (table), 6:2 (text).

Gallinula chloropus (Linnaeus, 1758) Common Moorhen

[Fulica] Chloropus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th ed. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:152.

[Gallinula] chloropus Joannis Latham [John Latham]. Index ornithologicus; sive, Systema ornithologiæ, complectens avium divisionem in classes, ordines, genera, species, ipsarumque varietates, adjectis synonymis, locis, descriptionibus, &c. Londini [London]: published by author, 1790, 2:770.

Fulica Linnaeus, 1758

Fulica Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th ed. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:152.

Fulica atra Linnaeus, 1758 Eurasian Coot

[Fulica] atra Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th ed. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:152.

Fulica cristata Gmelin, 1789 Red-knobbed Coot

[Fulica] cristata Jo. Fridr. Gmelin. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species: cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, by Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. 13th edn., edited by Jo. Frid. Gmelin. Lugduni [Lyon]: J. B. Delamolliere, 1789, 1, pt. 2:704.

Fulica americana Gmelin, 1789 American Coot

[Fulica] americana Jo. Fridr. Gmelin. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species: cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, by Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. 13th edn., edited by Jo. Frid. Gmelin. Lugduni [Lyon]: J. B. Delamolliere, 1789, 1, pt. 2:704.

Porphyrio Brisson, 1760

Porphyrio M. J. Brisson. Ornithologie; ou, Méthode contenant la division des oiseaux en ordres, sections, genres, especes & leurs variétés. A laquelle on a joint une description exacte de chaque espece, avec les citations des auteurs qui en ont traité, les noms quils leur ont donnés, ceux que leur ont donnés les différentes nations, & les noms vulgaires = Ornithologia; sive, Synopsis methodica sistens avium divisionem in ordines, sectiones, genera, species, ipsarumque varietates. Cum accurata cujusque speciei descriptione, citacionibus auctorum de iis tractantium, nominibus eis ab ipsis & nationibus impositis, nominibusque vulgaribus. Paris: Cl. Jean-Baptiste Bauche, 1760, 1:48 (table), 5:522 (text), pl. 42, fig. 1.

Porphyrio alleni Thomson, 1842 Allen’s Gallinule

Porphyrio Alleni T. R. H. Thomson. “Description of a New Species of Genetta, and of Two Species of Birds from Western Africa.” Annals and Magazine of Natural History 10, no. 64 (1842): 203–205, 204.

Porphyrio martinica (Linnaeus, 1766) Purple Gallinule

[Fulica] martinica Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 12th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1766, 1:259.

Porphyrio martinica Alcide d’Orbigny. Histoire physique, politique et naturelle de l’ile de Cuba, by Ramón de la Sagra. [Vol. 3, Pt. 2], Ornithologie. Paris: Arthus Betrand, 1839:265.

Porphyrio martinicus P. L. Sclater. “List of a Collection of Birds Made by the Late Mr. W. Osburn in Jamaica, with Notes.” Proceedings of the Scientific Meetings of the Zoological Society of London for the Year 1861, no. 5 (1861): 69–82, 81. Since martinica is a noun in apposition, gender change after Richard Schodde and Walter Bock. “Conflict resolution of grammar and gender for avian species-group names under Article 31.2.2 of the ICZN Code: is gender agreement worth it?” Zootaxa 4127, no. 1 (2016): 161–170, 165.

Porphyrio porphyrio (Linnaeus, 1758) Western Swamphen

[Fulica] Porphyrio Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th ed. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:152.

Porphyrio porphyrio R. Bowdler Sharpe. Catalogue of the Birds in the British Museum. Vol. 23, Catalogue of the Fulicariæ (Rallidæ and Heliornithidæ) and Alectorides (Aramidæ, Eurypygidæ, Mesitidæ, Rhinochetidæ, Gruidæ, Psophiidæ, and Otididæ) in the Collection of the British Museum. London: Trustees [of the British Museum (Natural History)], 1894:195.

Porphyrio madagascariensis (Latham, 1801) African Swamphen

[Gallinula] madagascariensis Joannis Latham [John Latham]. Supplementum indicis ornithologici; sive, systematis ornithologiæ. Londini [London]: G. Leigh, J. and S. Sotheby, 1801:lxviii.

Porphyrio madagascariensis James. F. Clements. Birds of the World: A Check List. New York, NY: The Two Continents Publishing Group, 1974:75.

Porphyrio poliocephalus (Latham, 1801) Grey-headed Swamphen

[Gallinula] poliocephala Joannis Latham [John Latham]. Supplementum indicis ornithologici; sive, systematis ornithologiæ. Londini [London]: G. Leigh, J. and S. Sotheby, 1801:lxviii.

Porphyrio poliocephalus Louis Pierre Vieillot. “Le Porphyrio a tète grise, Porphyrio poliocephalus, Vieill.” In Nouveau dictionnaire d’histoire naturelle, appliquée aux arts, à l’agriculture, à l’économie rurale et domestique, à la médecine, etc., edited by Société de naturalistes et d’agriculteurs. Paris: Deterville, 1819, 28:30.

Zapornia Leach, 1816

Zapornia (minuta) [W. E. Leach]. Systematic Catalogue of the Specimens of the Indigenous Mammalia and Birds That Are Present in the British Museum, with Their Localities and Authorities. To Which Is Added a List of the Described Species That Are Wanting to Complete the Collection of British Mammalia and Birds. London: Richard and Arthur Taylor, 1816:34. (Republished as Leach’s Systematic Catalogue of the Specimens of the Indigenous Mammalia and Birds in the British Museum. Edited by Osbert Salvin. London: Willughby Society, 1882:34.)

Zapornia fusca (Linnaeus, 1766) Ruddy-breasted Crake

[Rallus] fuscus Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 12th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1766, 1:262.

Zapornia fusca Edward C. Dickinson and J. V. Remsen Jr. “Sibirionetta formosa“. In The Howard and Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World. Vol. 1, Non–passerines. 4th Edition. Eastbourne: Aves Press, 2013: ??. Republished online. Accessed 31 August 2021. <https://www.aviansystematics.org/4th-edition-checklist?viewfamilies=42>.

Zapornia pusilla (Pallas, 1776) Baillon’s Crake

Rallus pusillus P. S. Pallas. “Anhang zum dritten Theil. Descriptiones animalium.” In Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Rußischen Reichs. Theil 3, Buch 2, Reise aus Sibirien zurück an die Wolga im 1773sten Jahr. St. Petersburg: Kaiserlichen Academie der Wissenschaften, 1776: 700.

Zapornia pusilla James Francis Stephens. General Zoology; or, Systematic Natural History, Commenced by the Late George Shaw M.D. F.R.S. Vol. 12, pt. 1, Birds. London: J. and A. Arch; Longman, Hurst; E. Jeffery and Son; J. Mawman; Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy; J. Booth; Sherwood; G. B. Whittaker; R. Scholey; S. Bagster; Rodwell and Martin; R. Saunders; Hamilton, Adams; Simpkin and Marshall; J. Duncan; T. and J. Allman; C. Smith; G. Wightman, 1824:231.

Zapornia parva (Scopoli, 1769) Little Crake

Rallus parvus Ioannis Antonii Scopoli [Giovanni Antonio Scopoli]. Annus I historico-naturalis. Descriptiones avium musei proprii earumque rariorum, quas vidit in vivario augustiis imperatoris, et in museo excell. comitis Francisci Annib. Turriani. Lipsiæ [Leipzig]: Christ. Gottlob Hilscheri, 1769:108.

Zapornia parva R. Bowdler Sharpe. Catalogue of the Birds in the British Museum. Vol. 23, Catalogue of the Fulicariæ (Rallidæ and Heliornithidæ) and Alectorides (Aramidæ, Eurypygidæ, Mesitidæ, Rhinochetidæ, Gruidæ, Psophiidæ, and Otididæ) in the Collection of the British Museum. London: Trustees [of the British Museum (Natural History)], 1894:89.

Aenigmatolimnas Peters, 1932

Aenigmatolimnas J. L. Peters. “Two New Genera and a New Subspecies of Rails.” Proceedings of the New England Zoölogical Club 13 (1932): 63–67, 64.

Aenigmatolimnas marginalis (Hartlaub, 1857) Striped Crake

[Porzana] marginalis G. Hartlaub. System der Ornithologie Westafrica’s. Bremen: C. Schünemann, 1857:241.

Aenigmatolimnas marginalis J. L. Peters. “Two New Genera and a New Subspecies of Rails.” Proceedings of the New England Zoölogical Club 13 (1932): 63–67, 64.

Gallicrex Blyth, 1852

Gallicrex Edward Blyth. Catalogue of the Birds in the Museum Asiatic Society. Calcutta: [Asiatic] Society, “1849” [1852]: 283.

Gallicrex cinerea (Gmelin, 1789) Watercock

[Fulica] cinerea Jo. Fridr. Gmelin. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species: cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, by Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. 13th edn., edited by Jo. Frid. Gmelin. Lugduni [Lyon]: J. B. Delamolliere, 1789, 1, pt. 2:702.

Gallicrex cinereus “Arthur, Viscount Walden” [Arthur Hay]. “On a Collection of Birds Recently Made by Lieutenant Robert Wardlaw Ramsay, F.Z.S., in the Andaman Islands.” Ibis, 3rd ser., 3, no. 11 (1873): 296–321, 317.

Gallicrex cinerea “Arthur, Viscount Walden” [Arthur Hay]. “A List of the Birds Known to Inhabit the Philippine Archipelago.” Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 9, pt. 2 (1875): 125–252, 229. Since Gallicrex is feminine, gender change confirmed by Normand David and Michel Gosselin. “The Grammatical Gender of Avian Genera.” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 122, no. 4 (2002): 257–282, 260.

Amaurornis Reichenbach, 1853

Amaurornis (Rchb. olivacea) L. Reichenbach. “Die Vögel. The Birds. Aves. Les oiseaux – Systema avium.” In Avium systema nature. Das natürliche System der Vögel. Mit hundert Tafeln größtenteils Original-Abbildungen der bis jetzt entdeckten fast zwölfhundert typischen Formen = Ornithologie méthodique; ou, Exposé des genres des oiseaux de toutes les parties du monde, réunissant les découvertes les plus récentes représentant a peu près mille et deux cent types charactérestiques. Dresden: Expedition der Vollständigsten Naturgeschichte, 1853:21.

Amaurornis phoenicurus (Pennant, 1769) White-breasted Waterhen

Gallinula phœnicurus Thomas Pennant. Indian Zoology. [London]: [1769]: 10, pl. 9.

[Amaurornis] phoenicura Carl J. Sundevall. Methodi naturalis avium disponendarum tentamen = Försök till fogelklassens naturenliga uppställnung. Stockholm: Samson & Wallin, 1873, pt. 2:132.

Amaurornis phoenicurus Leonhard Stejneger. “Review of Japanese Birds. III. Rails, gallinules, and coots.” Proceedings of the United States National Museum 9, no. 579 (1887): 395–408, 405. Although Amaurornis is feminine, phoenicurus is an invariable noun, after Normand David and Michel Gosselin. “The Grammatical Gender of Avian Genera.” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 122, no. 4 (2002): 257–282, 276.

GRUIDAE Vigors, 1825

Gruidæ Nicholas Aylward Vigors. “Observations on the Natural Affinities That Connect the Orders and Families of Birds.” Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 14, pt. 3 (1825): 395–517, 413.

Leucogeranus Bonaparte, 1855

Leucogeranus Carolo Luciano Bonaparte [Charles Lucien Bonaparte]. Conspectus generum avium. Lugduni Batavorum [Leiden]: E. J. Brill, “1857” [1855], 2:99.

Leucogeranus leucogeranus (Pallas, 1773) Siberian Crane

Grus Leucogeranus P.S. Pallas. “Anhang zum zweiten Theil. Descriptiones animalium.” In Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Rußischen Reichs. Pt. 2, Buch 2, Reise durch verschiedene Theile des Rußischen Reichs im 1771sten Jahr. St. Petersburg: Kaiserlichen Academie der Wissenschaften, 1773:714.

Grus Leucogeranos P.S. Pallas. Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Rußischen Reichs. Pt. 2, Reise durch verschiedene Theile des Rußischen Reichs im 1771sten Jahr. St. Petersburg: Kaiserlichen Academie der Wissenschaften, 1773: pl. I.

Leucogeranus leucogeranus L. Brasil. Genera avium, edited by P. Wytsman. Pt. 19, Grues. Fam. Gruidæ. Brussels: V. Verteneuil & L. Desmet, 1913:5.

Antigone Reichenbach, 1853

Antigone L. Reichenbach. “Die Vögel. The Birds. Aves. Les oiseaux – Systema avium.” In Avium systema nature. Das natürliche System der Vögel. Mit hundert Tafeln größtenteils Original-Abbildungen der bis jetzt entdeckten fast zwölfhundert typischen Formen = Ornithologie méthodique; ou, Exposé des genres des oiseaux de toutes les parties du monde, réunissant les découvertes les plus récentes représentant a peu près mille et deux cent types charactérestiques. Dresden: Expedition der Vollständigsten Naturgeschichte, 1853:23.

Antigone canadensis (Linnaeus, 1758) Sandhill Crane

[Ardea] canadensis Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th ed. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:141.

Antigone canadensis R. Terry Chesser, Kevin J. Burns, Carla Cicero, Jon L. Dunn, Andrew W. Kratter, Irby J. Lovette, Pamela C. Rasmussen, J. V. Remsen Jr., James D. Rising, Douglas F. Stotz and Kevin Winker. “Fifty-seventh Supplement to the American Ornithologists’ Union Check-list of North American Birds.” Auk 133, no. 3 (2016): 544–560, 550.

Grus Brisson, 1760

Grus M. J. Brisson. Ornithologie; ou, Méthode contenant la division des oiseaux en ordres, sections, genres, especes & leurs variétés. A laquelle on a joint une description exacte de chaque espece, avec les citations des auteurs qui en ont traité, les noms quils leur ont donnés, ceux que leur ont donnés les différentes nations, & les noms vulgaires = Ornithologia; sive, Synopsis methodica sistens avium divisionem in ordines, sectiones, genera, species, ipsarumque varietates. Cum accurata cujusque speciei descriptione, citacionibus auctorum de iis tractantium, nominibus eis ab ipsis & nationibus impositis, nominibusque vulgaribus. Paris: Cl. Jean-Baptiste Bauche, 1760, 5:375.

Grus virgo (Linnaeus, 1758) Demoiselle Crane

[Ardea] Virgo Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th ed. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:141.

Grus Virgo Petro Pallas [Peter Pallas]. Zoographia rosso-asiatica, sistens omnium animalium in extenso imperio rossico, et adjacentibus maribus observatorum recensionem, domicilia, mores et descriptiones, anatomen atque icones plurimorum. Petropoli [Saint Petersburg]: Ex officina Caes. Academiae scientiarum, 1811, 2:108. (Republished as Zoographia rosso-asiatica, sistens omnium animalium in extenso imperio rossico, et adjacentibus maribus observatorum recensionem, domicilia, mores et descriptiones, anatomen atque icones plurimorum. Petropoli [Saint Petersburg]: In officina Caesareum Academiae scientiarum impress, 1831, 2:108.)

Grus grus (Linnaeus, 1758) Common Crane

[Ardea] Grus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th ed. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:141.

Grus grus [Leonhard Stenjeger]. “Introduction.” In The Standard Natural History by the Leading American Authorities, edited by J. S. Kingsley. Part 49, Natural History of Birds, by Walter B. Barrows, Daniel G. Elliot, Leonhard Stejneger and J. S. Kingsley. Boston, MA: S. E. Cassino: [188?]: 18. (Collated and republished in The Standard Natural History, edited by J. S. Kingsley. Vol. 4, Natural History of Birds, by Walter B. Barrows, Daniel G. Elliot, Leonhard Stejneger and J. S. Kingsley. Boston, MA: S. E. Cassino: [1885]: 18.

PODICIPEDIDAE Bonaparte, 1831

Podicepinae Carlo Luciano Bonaparte [Charles Lucien Bonaparte]. Saggio di una distribuzione metodica degli animali vertebrati. Roma [Rome]: Presso Antonio Boulzaler, 1831:35.

Podicipidae J. F. Brandt. “Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Naturgeschichte der Vögel. Mit besonderer Beziehung auf Skeletbau und Vergleichende Zoologie.” Mémoires de l’Académie impériale des sciences de Saint-Pétersbourg, 6th ser., tome 5, pt. 2 = Sciences naturelles tome 3, pt. 2 (1839): 81–237, 211 (Stand-alone reprint as Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Naturgeschichte der Vögel. Mit besonderer Beziehung auf Skeletbau und Vergleichende Zoologie. St. Petersburg: [Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften], 1839:131.

Podicipitidae Henry E. Dresser. A History of the Birds of Europe. London: published by author, 1880, pt. 80:229. (Collated and republished in A History of the Birds of Europe, Including All the Species Inhabiting the Western Palæarctic Region. London: published by author, 1881, 8: “229” [627].)

Podicipedidae Alfred Newton. A Dictionary of Birds. With the assistance of Hans Gadow and contributions from Richard Lydekker, Charles S. Roy and Robert W. Shufeldt. London: Adam and Charles Black, 1896:381. Name settlement for Podicipedidae over Podicipitidae in R. V. Melville. “Opinion 981: Podicipedidae Bonaparte, 1831 (Aves); Validated under the Plenary Powers.” Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 29, no. 1 (1972): 15–18, 15.

Tachybaptus Reichenbach, 1853

Tachybaptus L. Reichenbach. “Die Vögel. The Birds. Aves. Les oiseaux – Systema avium.” In Avium systema nature. Das natürliche System der Vögel. Mit hundert Tafeln größtenteils Original-Abbildungen der bis jetzt entdeckten fast zwölfhundert typischen Formen = Ornithologie méthodique; ou, Exposé des genres des oiseaux de toutes les parties du monde, réunissant les découvertes les plus récentes représentant a peu près mille et deux cent types charactérestiques. Dresden: Expedition der Vollständigsten Naturgeschichte, 1853:3.

Tachybaptus ruficollis (Pallas, 1764) Little Grebe

Colymbus (ruficollis) [P.S. Pallas]. “Adumbratiunculae avium variarum præcedenti elencho insertarum, sed quae in Systemate naturæ illustr. Linnæi nondum extant.” [Sketches of various birds inserted in the previous list, absent from the Systema naturae of Linneaus.] In Beredeneerde catalogus, van eene, bij uitstek fraayeen weergalooze verzameling, zoo van inlandsche als uitheemsche vogelen, viervoetige en gekorvene dieren. Zynde alle op het konstigste in derzelver natuurlykster standen, aart en houding, opgevult, opgezet, en, op eene byzondere wyze, voor alle bederf beveiligt, by A. Vroeg. ‘s Gravenhage: Pieter van Os, 1764:6.

Tachybaptus ruficollis John E. Thayer and Outram Bangs. “Aves.” In “Some Chinese Vertebrates,” edited by Samuel Henshaw. Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoölogy at Harvard College 40, no. 4 (1912): [137]–200, 146.

Podilymbus Lesson, 1831

Podilymbus R. P. Lesson. Traité d’ornithologie; ou, Tableau méthodique des ordres, sous-ordres, familles, tribus, genres, sous-genres et races d’oiseaux. Ouvrage entièrement neuf, formant le catalogue le plus complet des espèces réunies dans les collections publiques de la France. Paris: F. G. Levrault, 1831, livr. 8:595. (Collated and republished in Traité d’ornithologie; ou, Tableau méthodique des ordres, sous-ordres, familles, tribus, genres, sous-genres et races d’oiseaux. Ouvrage entièrement neuf, formant le catalogue le plus complet des espèces réunies dans les collections publiques de la France. Paris: F. G. Levrault, 1831, 1:595.)

Podilymbus podiceps (Linnaeus, 1758) Pied-billed Grebe

[Colymbus] Podiceps Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th ed. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:136.

Podilymbus podiceps George N. Lawrence Reports of Explorations and Surveys, to Ascertain the Most Practicable and Economical Route for a Railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, Made under the Direction of the Secretary of War, in 1853–6, According to Acts of Congress of March 8, 1853, May 31, 1854, and August 5, 1854. Vol. 9, General Report upon the Zoology of the Several Pacific Railroad Routes. Pt. 2 Birds, by Spencer F. Baird, with the co-operation of John Cassin and George N. Lawrence. House of Representatives Report Ex. Doc. No. 91 (1858): 898.

Podiceps Latham, 1787

Podiceps John Latham. Supplement to the General Synopsis of Birds. London: Leigh and Sotheby, 1787:294.

Podiceps grisegena (Boddaert, 1783) Red-necked Grebe

Colymbus grisegena [P.] Boddaert. Table des planches enluminéez d’histoire naturelle de M. d’Aubenton. Avec les denominations de M. M. de Buffon, Brisson, Edwards, Linnæus et Latham, precedé d’une notice des principaux ouvrages zoologiques enluminés. Utrecht, 1783:55.

P[odiceps] grisegena George Robert Gray. The Genera of Birds, Comprising Their Generic Characters, a Notice of the Habits of Each Genus, and an Extensive List of Species Referred to Their Several Genera. London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1846, pt. 26: [??]. (Collated and republished in The Genera of Birds, Comprising Their Generic Characters, a Notice of the Habits of Each Genus, and an Extensive List of Species Referred to Their Several Genera. London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1849, 3: [633].)

Podiceps griseigena H. Schlegel. “Urinatores.” In Muséum d’histoire naturelle des Pays-Bas. Revue méthodique et critique des collections déposées dans cet établissement, edited by H. Schlegel, Monographie 33. Leide [Leiden]: E. J. Brill, 1867, livr. 9:38. (Collated and republished in Muséum d’histoire naturelle des Pays-Bas. Revue méthodique et critique des collections déposées dans cet établissement, edited by H. Schlegel. Leide [Leiden]: E. J. Brill, n.d., 6:38.)

Podicipes griseigena Tommaso Salvadori. “Elenco degli uccelli italiani.” Annali del Museo civico di storia naturale di Genova 23, 2nd ser., 3 (1886): 5–302, 301.

P. g. grisegena (Boddaert, 1783)

P. g. holbollii Reinhardt, 1853

Podiceps Holböllii J. Reinhardt. “Notitser til Grönlands Ornithologie.” Videnskabelige meddelelser fra den Naturhistoriske forening i Kjöbenhavn, Aaret 1853, no. 3–4 (1853): 71–85, 76.

[Podiceps] griseigena var. holböllii Elliott Coues. Key to North American Birds, Containing a Concise Account of Every Species of Living and Fossil Bird at Present Known from the Continent North of the Mexican and United States Boundary. Salem: Naturalists’ Agency, 1872:336.

[Podiceps griseigena] var. holbolli Robert Ridgway. “A Catalogue of Birds Ascertained to Occur in Illinois.” Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York 10, sig. 25–26 (1874): 364–394, 392.

Podiceps griseigena holbœllii C. Hart Merriam. “List of Birds Ascertained to Occur within Ten Miles from Point de Monts, Province of Quebec, Canada; Based Chiefly upon the Notes of Napoleon A. Comeau.” Bulletin of the Nuttall Ornithological Club 7, no. 4 (1882): 233–242, 241.

Podiceps griseigena holböllii Committee of the American Ornithologists’ Union [Alexander Wetmore, Herbert Friedmann, Dean Amadon, Frederick C. Lincoln, George H. Lowery Jr., Alden H. Miller, James L. Peters, Frank A. Pitelka, Adriaan J. van Rossem, Josselyn Van Tyne and John T. Zimmer]. Check-list of North American Birds. 5th ed. n.p.: American Ornithologists’ Union, 1957:4.

Podiceps grisegena holbollii Robert M. Mengel. The Birds of Kentucky. Ornithological Monographs 3. [Ann Arbor, MI?]: American Ornithologists’ Union, 1965:153. Since Carl Peter Holbøll was Danish, ICZN 32.5.2.1 requires removal of diacritical marks, per Alan Peterson. Zoonomen Nomenclatural Data. Last modified 30 August 2021, accessed 9 September 2021. https://www.zoonomen.net/avtax/n/h.html#P.g.holbolliiNomen.

Podiceps cristatus (Linnaeus, 1758) Great Crested Grebe

[Colymbus] cristatus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th ed. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:135.

[Podiceps] cristatus Joannis Latham [John Latham]. Index ornithologicus; sive, Systema ornithologiæ, complectens avium divisionem in classes, ordines, genera, species, ipsarumque varietates, adjectis synonymis, locis, descriptionibus, &c. Londini [London]: published by author, 1790, 2:780.

Podiceps auritus (Linnaeus, 1758) Horned Grebe

[Colymbus] auritus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th ed. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:135.

[Podiceps] auritus Joannis Latham [John Latham]. Index ornithologicus; sive, Systema ornithologiæ, complectens avium divisionem in classes, ordines, genera, species, ipsarumque varietates, adjectis synonymis, locis, descriptionibus, &c. Londini [London]: published by author, 1790, 2:781.

Podiceps nigricollis Brehm, 1831 Black-necked Grebe

Podiceps nigricollis Christian Ludwig Brehm. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte aller Vögel Deutschlands, worin nach den sorgfältigsten Untersuchungen und den genauesten Beobachtungen mehr als 900 einheimische Vögel-Gattungen zur Begründung einer ganz neuen Ansicht und Behandlung ihrer Naturgeschichte vollständig beschrieben sind. Ilmenau: Bernh. Friedr. Voigt, 1831:963.

PHOENICOPTERIDAE Bonaparte, 1831

Phœnicopteridæ Carlo Luciano Bonaparte [Charles Lucien Bonaparte]. Saggio di una distribuzione metodica degli animali vertebrati. Roma [Rome]: Presso Antonio Boulzaler, 1831:34.

Phoenicopterus Linnaeus, 1758

Phoenicopterus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th ed. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:139.

Phoenicopterus roseus Pallas, 1811 Greater Flamingo

Phoenicopterus roseus Petro Pallas [Peter Pallas]. Zoographia rosso-asiatica, sistens omnium animalium in extenso imperio rossico, et adjacentibus maribus observatorum recensionem, domicilia, mores et descriptiones, anatomen atque icones plurimorum. Petropoli [Saint Petersburg]: Ex officina Caes. Academiae scientiarum, 1811, 2:207. (Republished as Zoographia rosso-asiatica, sistens omnium animalium in extenso imperio rossico, et adjacentibus maribus observatorum recensionem, domicilia, mores et descriptiones, anatomen atque icones plurimorum. Petropoli [Saint Petersburg]: In officina Caesareum Academiae scientiarum impress, 1831, 2:207.)

Phoenicopterus chilensis Molina, 1782 Chilean Flamingo

Phœnicopterus Chilensis Giovanni Ignazio Molina [Juan Ignacio Molina]. Saggio sulla storia naturale del Chili. Bologna: S. Tommase d’Aquino, 1782:242, 344.

Phoeniconaias Gray, 1869

Phœniconaias G. R. Gray. “Notes on the Bills of the Species of Flamingo (Phœnicopterus).” Ibis, n.s., 5, no. 20 (1869): 438–443, 440.

Phoeniconaias minor (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1798) Lesser Flamingo

Phœ[nicopterus] minor E. Geoffroy [Saint-Hilaire]. “Sur une nouvelle espèce de Phœnicoptère ou Flammant.” Bulletin des sciences, par la Société philomathique, tome 1, année 2, no. 1, sig. N, no. 13 (1798): 97–98, 98; tome 1, année 2, no. 2, sig. O, no. 14 (1798): fig. 1–3.

[Phoeniconaias] minor G. Hartlaub. “Bericht über die Leistungen in der Naturgeschichte der Vögel während des Jahres 1869.” Archiv für Naturgeschichte 36, Bd.2 (1870): [1]–44, 40.

TURNICIDAE Gray, 1840

Turnicinæ George Robert Gray. A List of the Genera of Birds, with an Indication of the Typical Species of Each Genus. n.p. [London]: Richard and John E. Taylor, 1840:63.

Turnicidæ O. des Murs. Traité général d’oologie ornithologique au point de vue de la classification. Paris: Friedrich Klincksieck, 1860:201.

Turnix Bonnaterre, 1791

Turnix [P. J.] Bonnaterre. Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature. Ornithologie. Paris: Panckoucke, 1791, livr. 47: lxxxii (table), 5 (descr.). (Collated and republished in [P. J.] Bonnaterre and L. P. Vieillot. Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature. Ornithologie. Paris: Mme. veuve Agasse, 1823, pt. 1:lxxxii (table), 5 (descr.).)

Turnix sylvaticus (Desfontaines, 1789) Common Buttonquail

Tetrao sylvaticus [R. L.] Desfontaines. “Mémoire sur quelques nouvelles espèces d’oiseaux des côtes de Barbarie.” Histoire de l’Academie Royale des Sciences, année 1787 (1789): 496–505, 500. (Republished in Desfontaines’s Mémoire sur quelques nouvelles espèces d’oiseaux des côtes de Barbarie, edited by Alfred Newton. London: Willughby Society, 1880, 500.)

Turnix sylvatica Charles Bonaparte. Catalogue des oiseaux d’Europe offerts en 1856 aux ornithologistes par Émile Parzudaki, suivi d’une énumération supplémentaire des espèces acclimatées et d’une autre de celles données a tort comme d’Europe, rédigé d’après les dernières classifications. Paris: Émile Parzudaki, 1856:13.

Turnix sylvaticus C. D. Degland [C.-D. Degland] and Z. Gerbe. Ornithologie européenne, ou, Catalogue descriptif, analytique et raisonné des oiseaux observés en Europe. Paris: J. B. Baillière et Fils, 1867, 2:84.

BURHINIDAE Mathews, 1912

Burhinidae Gregory M. Mathews. “A Reference-list to the Birds of Australia.” Novitates zoologicae 18, no. 3 (1912): 171–455, 225.

Burhinus Illiger, 1811

Burhinus Caroli Illigeri [Karl Illeger]. Prodromus systematis mammalium et avium. Additis terminis zoographicis utriusque classis, eorumque versione germanica. Berolini [Berlin]: C. Salfeld, 1811:250.

Burhinus oedicnemus (Linnaeus, 1758) Eurasian Stone-curlew

[Charadrius] Oedicnemus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th ed. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:151.

Burhinus œdicnemus Ernst Hartert. “Burhinus œdicnemus.” In A Hand-list of British birds, With an Account of the Distribution of Each Species in the British Isles and Abroad, by Ernst Hartert, F. C. R. Jourdain, N. F. Ticehurst and H. F. Witherby. London: Witherby, 1912:163.

B. o. oedicnemus (Linnaeus, 1758)

B. o. distinctus (Bannerman, 1914)

Œdicnemus œdicnemus distinctus David A. Bannerman. “An Ornithological Expedition to the Eastern Canary Islands (Part 2).” Ibis, 10th ser., 2, no. 2 (1914): 228–293, 277.

Burhinus oedicnemus distinctus Ernst Hartert. Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. R. Friedländer & Sohn, 1920, Heft 11–12 (Bd. 2, Heft 5–6): “1820” [1520]. (Collated and republished in Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. R. Friedländer & Sohn, 1921, Bd. 2: “1820” [1520].).

B. o. insularum (Sassi, 1908)

Oedicnemus oedicnemus insularum Moriz Sassi. “Einige Bemerkungen zur Ornis der canarischen Inseln.” Ornithologisches Jahrbuch 19, Heft 1–2 (1908): 30–36, 32.

Burhinus oedicnemus insularum Ernst Hartert. Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. R. Friedländer & Sohn, 1920, Heft 11–12 (Bd. 2, Heft 5–6): “1820” [1520]. (Collated and republished in Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. R. Friedländer & Sohn, 1921, Bd. 2: “1820” [1520].).

Burhinus senegalensis (Swainson, 1837) Senegal Thick-knee

Œdicnemus senegalensis W. Swainson. The Natural History of the Birds of Western Africa. The Naturalist’s Library. Ornithology, edited by William Jardine, vol. 8. Edinburgh: W. H. Lizars, 1837, 2:228.

Burhinus senegalensis John C. Phillips. “Notes on a Collection of Birds from the Sudan.” Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoölogy at Harvard College 58, no. 1 (1913): 7.

Burhinus capensis (Lichtenstein, 1823) Spotted Thick-knee

O[edicnemus] capensis H. Lichtenstein. Verzeichniss der Doubletten des Zoologischen Museums der Königl. Universität zu Berlin, nebst Beschreibung vieler bisher unbekannter Arten von Säugethieren, Vögeln, Amphibien und Fischen. Berlin: T. Trautwein, 1823:69.

Burhinus (Oedicnemus) capensis Ernst Hartert. “Captain Angus Buchanan’s Air Expedition. 4: The Birds Collected by Capt. Angus Buchanan during His Journey from Kano to Air or Asben.” Novitates zoologicae 28, no. 1 (1921): 78–141, 88.

Esacus Lesson, 1831

Esacus R. P. Lesson. Traité d’ornithologie; ou, Tableau méthodique des ordres, sous-ordres, familles, tribus, genres, sous-genres et races d’oiseaux. Ouvrage entièrement neuf, formant le catalogue le plus complet des espèces réunies dans les collections publiques de la France. Paris: F. G. Levrault, 1831, livr. 7:547. (Collated and republished in Traité d’ornithologie; ou, Tableau méthodique des ordres, sous-ordres, familles, tribus, genres, sous-genres et races d’oiseaux. Ouvrage entièrement neuf, formant le catalogue le plus complet des espèces réunies dans les collections publiques de la France. Paris: F. G. Levrault, 1831, 1:547.)

Esacus recurvirostris (Cuvier, 1829) Great Stone-curlew

Œd[icnemus] recurvirostris [J. L. N. F.] [George] Cuvier Le règne animal distribué d’après son organisation, pour servir de base à l’histoire naturelle des animaux et d’introduction à l’anatomie comparée. Nouvelle édition. Paris: Déterville, 1829, 1:500n2.

Esacus recurvirostris E[dward] B[lyth]. “Report from the Curator [to the Asiatic Society].” Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 11, pt. 2, no. 128 (1842): 788–809, 788.

HAEMATOPODIDAE Bonaparte, 1838

Haematopodinae Charolo L. Bonaparte [Charles L. Bonaparte]. “Synopsis vertebratorum systematis.” Nuovi annali delle scienze naturali, anno 1, 2 (1838): [105]–133, 118.

Hæmatopodidæ Charles-Lucien Bonaparte [Charles Lucien Bonaparte]. “Classification ornithologique par séries.” Compte rendu hebdomadaires des séances de l’Académie des sciences 37, pt. 2, no. 18 (1853): [641]–647, 646.

Haematopus Linnaeus, 1758

Hæmatopus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th ed. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:152.

Haematopus ostralegus Linnaeus, 1758 Eurasian Oystercatcher

[Hæmatopus] Ostralegus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th ed. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:152.

RECURVIROSTRIDAE Bonaparte, 1838

Recurvirostridae Charolo L. Bonaparte [Charles L. Bonaparte]. “Synopsis vertebratorum systematis.” Nuovi annali delle scienze naturali, anno 1, 2 (1838): [105]–133, 119.

Himantopus Brisson, 1760

Himantopus M. J. Brisson. Ornithologie; ou, Méthode contenant la division des oiseaux en ordres, sections, genres, especes & leurs variétés. A laquelle on a joint une description exacte de chaque espece, avec les citations des auteurs qui en ont traité, les noms quils leur ont donnés, ceux que leur ont donnés les différentes nations, & les noms vulgaires = Ornithologia; sive, Synopsis methodica sistens avium divisionem in ordines, sectiones, genera, species, ipsarumque varietates. Cum accurata cujusque speciei descriptione, citacionibus auctorum de iis tractantium, nominibus eis ab ipsis & nationibus impositis, nominibusque vulgaribus. Paris: Cl. Jean-Baptiste Bauche, 1760, 1:46 (tab.), 5:33 (text).

Himantopus himantopus (Linnaeus, 1758) Black-winged Stilt

[Charadrius] Himantopus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th ed. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:151.

Himantopus himantopus R. Bowdler Sharpe. “Notes on a Second Collection of Birds Made by Mr. W. D. Cumming at Fao, in the Perisan Gulf.” Ibis, 6th ser., 3, no. 9 (1891): 103–116, 114.

Recurvirostra Linnaeus, 1758

Recurvirostra Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th ed. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:151.

Recurvirostra avosetta Linnaeus, 1758 Pied Avocet

[Recurvirostra] Avosetta Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th ed. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:151.

CHARADRIIDAE Leach, 1820

Charadriadæ [William Elford Leach]. Synopsis of the Contents of the British Museum. 17th ed. London: Richard and Arthur Taylor, 1820:69.

Charadrii J. B. de Spix [J. B. von Spix]. Avium species novae, quas in itinere per brasiliam annis MDCCCXVII-MDCCCXX. Monachii [Munich]: Typis Franc. Seraph. Hübschmanni, 1825, 2:77.

Charadriides [G. J. Billberg]. Synopsis faunæ scandinaviæ. Tom. 1, pars 2, Aves. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Caroli Deleen, 1828:128.

Charadridæ Carlo Luciano Bonaparte [Charles Lucien Bonaparte]. Saggio di una distribuzione metodica degli animali vertebrati. Roma [Rome]: Presso Antonio Boulzaler, 1831:56.

Charadriaedae [error?] Christian Ludwig Brehm. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte aller Vögel Deutschlands<, worin nach den sorgfältigsten Untersuchungen und den genauesten Beobachtungen mehr als 900 einheimische Vögel-Gattungen zur Begründung einer ganz neuen Ansicht und Behandlung ihrer Naturgeschichte vollständig beschrieben sind. Ilmenau: Bernh. Friedr. Voigt, 1831:[535].

Charadriæ Christian Ludwig Landbek [Christian Ludwig Landbeck]. Systematische Aufzählung der Vögel Würtembergs, mit Angabe ihrer Aufenthaltsörter und ihrer Strichzeit. Stuttgart: J. G. Cotta’schen Verlagshandlung, 1834:55.

Charadrinae Karl Julius Perleb. Lehrbuch der Naturgeschichte. Bd. 2, Abt. 2, Lehrbuch der Zoologie. Freiburg im Breisgau:Friedrich Wagner, 1835:550.

Charadriidæ Leonard Jenyns. A Manual of British Vertebrate Animals; or, Descriptions of All the Animals Belonging to the Classes, Mammalia, Aves, Reptilia, Amphibia, and Pisces, Which Have Been Hitherto Observed in the British Islands, Including the Domesticated, Naturalized, and Extirpated species. The Whole Systematically Arranged. Cambridge: Pitt Press, 1835, 1:64.

Vanellus Brisson, 1760

Vanellus M. J. Brisson. Ornithologie; ou, Méthode contenant la division des oiseaux en ordres, sections, genres, especes & leurs variétés. A laquelle on a joint une description exacte de chaque espece, avec les citations des auteurs qui en ont traité, les noms quils leur ont donnés, ceux que leur ont donnés les différentes nations, & les noms vulgaires = Ornithologia; sive, Synopsis methodica sistens avium divisionem in ordines, sectiones, genera, species, ipsarumque varietates. Cum accurata cujusque speciei descriptione, citacionibus auctorum de iis tractantium, nominibus eis ab ipsis & nationibus impositis, nominibusque vulgaribus. Paris: Cl. Jean-Baptiste Bauche, 1760, 1:48 (tab.), 5:94 (text).

Vanellus vanellus (Linnaeus, 1758) Northern Lapwing

[Tringa] Vanellus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th ed. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:148.

[Vanellus] Vanellus [Hinrich Lichtenstein]. Nomenclator avium Musei zoologici berolinensis = Namenverzeichniss der in der zoologischen Sammlung der Königlichen Universität zu Berlin aufgestellten Arten von Vögeln nach den in der neueren Systematik am meisten zur Geltung gekommenen Namen der Gattungen und ihrer Unterabtheilungen. Berlin: Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1854:95.

Vanellus spinosus (Linnaeus, 1758) Spur-winged Lapwing

[Charadrius] spinosus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th ed. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:151.

H. Schlegel. “Cursores.” In Muséum d’histoire naturelle des Pays-Bas. Revue méthodique et critique des collections déposées dans cet établissement, edited by H. Schlegel, Monographie 29. Leide [Leiden]: E. J. Brill, 1865, livr. 7:60. (Collated and republished in Muséum d’histoire naturelle des Pays-Bas. Revue méthodique et critique des collections déposées dans cet établissement, edited by H. Schlegel. Leide [Leiden]: E. J. Brill, n.d., 4:60.)

Vanellus tectus (Boddaert, 1783) Black-headed Lapwing

Charadrius tectus [P.] Boddaert. Table des planches enluminéez d’histoire naturelle de M. d’Aubenton. Avec les denominations de M. M. de Buffon, Brisson, Edwards, Linnæus et Latham, precedé d’une notice des principaux ouvrages zoologiques enluminés. Utrecht, 1783:51.

Vanellus tectus C. W. Mackworth-Praed and C. H. B. Grant. Birds of Eastern and North Eastern Africa. 2nd ed. African Handbook of Birds, ser. 1, vol. 1. London: Longmans, Green, 1957, 1:363. [not seen]

Vanellus cinereus (Blyth, 1842) Grey-headed Lapwing

Pluvianus cinereus Ed. Blyth. “Report from the Curator of the Museum [of the Asiatic Society].” Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, n.s., 11, pt. 1, no. 126 (1842): 585–588, 587.

[Vanellus] cinereus Walter J. Bock. “A Generic Review of the Plovers (Charadriinae, Aves).” Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College 118, no. 2 (1958): 25–97, 57.

Vanellus indicus (Boddaert, 1783) Red-wattled Lapwing

Tringa Indica [P.] Boddaert. Table des planches enluminéez d’histoire naturelle de M. d’Aubenton. Avec les denominations de M. M. de Buffon, Brisson, Edwards, Linnæus et Latham, precedé d’une notice des principaux ouvrages zoologiques enluminés. Utrecht, 1783:50.

Vanellus indicus H. Schlegel. “Cursores.” In Muséum d’histoire naturelle des Pays-Bas. Revue méthodique et critique des collections déposées dans cet établissement, edited by H. Schlegel, Monographie 29. Leide [Leiden]: E. J. Brill, 1865, livr. 7:68. (Collated and republished in Muséum d’histoire naturelle des Pays-Bas. Revue méthodique et critique des collections déposées dans cet établissement, edited by H. Schlegel. Leide [Leiden]: E. J. Brill, n.d., 4:68.)

Vanellus gregarius (Pallas, 1771) Sociable Lapwing

Charadrius gregarius P. S. Pallas. “Anhang. Descriptiones fugitiuae animalium atque plantarum annis 1768 et 1769 observatorum.” In Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Rußischen Reichs. Pt. 1, Physicalische Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Russischen Reichs im 1768 und 1769sten Jahre. St. Petersburg: Kaiserlichen Academie der Wissenschaften, 1771:456.

Vanellus Gregarius Charles Lucian Bonaparte [Charles Lucien Bonaparte]. A Geographical and Comparative List of the Birds of Europe and North America. London: John Van Voorst, 1838:46.

Vanellus leucurus (Lichtenstein, 1823) White-tailed Lapwing

Charadrius leucurus H. Lichtenstein. “Naturhistorischer Anhang.” In Reise von Orenburg nach Buchara, by Eduard Eversmann. With an Afghan Language Glossary and Accompanied by a Natural-historical Appendix and Preface by H. Lichtenstein. Berlin: E. H. G. Christiani, 1823:137.

Vanellus leucurus Ed. Blyth. “Appendix to Mr. Blyth’s Report for December Meeting, 1842 [Part 2].” Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, n.s., 13, pt. 1, no. 149, no. 65 n.s. (1844): 361–395, 387.

Pluvialis Brisson, 1760

Pluvialis M. J. Brisson. Ornithologie; ou, Méthode contenant la division des oiseaux en ordres, sections, genres, especes & leurs variétés. A laquelle on a joint une description exacte de chaque espece, avec les citations des auteurs qui en ont traité, les noms quils leur ont donnés, ceux que leur ont donnés les différentes nations, & les noms vulgaires = Ornithologia; sive, Synopsis methodica sistens avium divisionem in ordines, sectiones, genera, species, ipsarumque varietates. Cum accurata cujusque speciei descriptione, citacionibus auctorum de iis tractantium, nominibus eis ab ipsis & nationibus impositis, nominibusque vulgaribus. Paris: Cl. Jean-Baptiste Bauche, 1760, 1:46 (tab.), 5:42 (text).

Pluvialis apricaria (Linnaeus, 1758) European Golden Plover

[Charadrius] apricarius Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th ed. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:150.

P[luvialis] apricarius Carlo L. Bonaparte [Charles Lucien Bonaparte]. Catalogo metodico degli uccelli europei. Bologna: Jacopo Marsigli, 1842:57.

Pluvialis apricaria Committee on Nomenclature [of the American Ornithologists’ Union] [Witmer Stone, Harry C. Oberholser, Jonathan Dwight, T. S. Palmer and Charles W. Richmond]. “Seventeenth Supplement to the American Ornithologists’ Union Check-list of North American Birds.” Auk 37, no. 3 (1920): 439–449, 443. Since Pluvialis is a gender-neutral adjective used as a substantive, regarded by Brisson as feminine, gender change confirmed by [Committee on the Nomenclature and Records of Occurrences of Rare Birds in the British Islands of the British Ornithologists’ Union]. “Ninth Report of the Committee on the Nomenclature and Records of Occurrences of Rare Birds in the British Islands, and on Certain Necessary Changes in the Nomenclature of the B.O.U. List of British Birds.” Ibis 75, no. 2 (1933): 343–351, 346.

Pluvialis fulva (Gmelin, 1789) Pacific Golden Plover

[Charadrius] fulvus Jo. Fridr. Gmelin. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species: cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, by Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. 13th edn., edited by Jo. Frid. Gmelin. Lugduni [Lyon]: J. B. Delamolliere, 1789, 1, pt. 2:687.

[Pluvialis] fulvus Ch. Bonaparte. “Excusions dans les diversmusées d’Allemagne, de Hollande et de Belgique, et Tableaux parallélique de l’ordre de l’Échassiers.” Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l’Académie des sciences 43, no. 8 (1856): 410–421, 417.

Pluvialis domesticus fulvus Gregory M. Mathews. The Birds of Australia. London: Witherby, 1913, 3, pt. 1:74. (Collated and republished in The Birds of Australia. London: Witherby, “1913–1914” [1914], 3:74.

Pluvialis domestica fulva Harry C. Oberholser. “The Birds of the Anamba Islands.” Bulletin of the United States National Museum, no. 98 (1917): 13. Since Pluvialis is a gender-neutral adjective used as a substantive, regarded by Brisson as feminine, gender change confirmed by [Committee on the Nomenclature and Records of Occurrences of Rare Birds in the British Islands of the British Ornithologists’ Union]. “Ninth Report of the Committee on the Nomenclature and Records of Occurrences of Rare Birds in the British Islands, and on Certain Necessary Changes in the Nomenclature of the B.O.U. List of British Birds.” Ibis 75, no. 2 (1933): 343–351, 346.

Pluvialis fulva L. A. Portenko. Fauna Anadyrskogo Kraia. Pt.1, Ptitsy. Trudy Naucno-issledovatel’skogo Instituta Poljarnogo Zemledelija, Zivotnovodstva i Promyslovogo Chozjajstva, Serija Promyslovoe chozjajstvo. Leningrad: Glavsevmorput, 1939, 5:153–155. Quoted in Charles Vaurie. “Systematic Notes on Palearctic Birds. No. 53 Charadriidae: The Genera Charadrius and Pluvialis.” American Museum Novitates 2177 (1964): 1–22, 16. Recommendation to species level by Peter G. Connors. “Taxonomy, Distribution, and Evolution of Golden Plovers (Pluvialis dominica and Pluvialis fulva).” Auk 100, (1983): 607–620, 607.

Pluvialis dominica (Müller, 1776) American Golden Plover

Charadrius Dominicus Philipp Ludwig Statius Müller. Des Ritters Carl von Linné Vollständiges Natursystem. [Vol. 9], Supplements und Register Band über aller sechs Theile oder Classen des Thierreichs. Nürnberg: Gabriel Nicolaus Raspe, 1776:116.

Pluvialis domesticus Gregory M. Mathews. The Birds of Australia. London: Witherby, 1913, 3, pt. 1:74. (Collated and republished in The Birds of Australia. London: Witherby, “1913–1914” [1914], 3:74.

Pluvialis domestica Harry C. Oberholser. “The Birds of the Anamba Islands.” Bulletin of the United States National Museum, no. 98 (1917): 13. Since Pluvialis is a gender-neutral adjective used as a substantive, regarded by Brisson as feminine, gender change confirmed by [Committee on the Nomenclature and Records of Occurrences of Rare Birds in the British Islands of the British Ornithologists’ Union]. “Ninth Report of the Committee on the Nomenclature and Records of Occurrences of Rare Birds in the British Islands, and on Certain Necessary Changes in the Nomenclature of the B.O.U. List of British Birds.” Ibis 75, no. 2 (1933): 343–351, 346.

Pluvialis squatarola (Linnaeus, 1758) Grey Plover

[Tringa] Squatarola Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th ed. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:149.

Pluvialis squatarola William MacGillivray. A History of British Birds: Indigenous and Migratory, Including Their Organization, Habits, and Relations, Remarks on Classification and Nomenclature, an Account of the Principal Organs of Birds, and Observations Relative to Practical Ornithology. Vol. 4, Cursores, or Runners; Tentatores, or Probers; Aucupatores, or Stalkers; Latitores, or Skulkers. London: William S. Orr, 1852:86.

Charadrius Linnaeus, 1758

Charadrius Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th ed. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:150.

Charadrius hiaticula Linnaeus, 1758 Common Ringed Plover

[Charadrius] Hiaticula Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th ed. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:150.

Charadrius semipalmatus Bonaparte, 1825 Semipalmated Plover

Charadrius semipalmatus Charles Bonaparte. “Observations on the Nomenclature of Wilson’s Ornithology [Part 5].” Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 5, pt. 1 (1825): 57–106, 98.

Charadrius dubius Scopoli, 1786 Little Ringed Plover

[Charadrius] dubius Ioannes Antonius Scopoli [Giovanni Antonio Scopoli]. Deliciae florae et faunae insubricae; seu, novae, aut minus cognitae species plantarum et animalium quas in Insubria austriaca tam spontaneas, quam exoticas. Ticini [Pavia]: Monasterii S. Salvatoris, 1786, 2:93.

Charadrius vociferus Linnaeus, 1758 Killdeer

[Charadrius] vociferus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th ed. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:150.

Charadrius pecuarius Temminck, 1823 Kittlitz’s Plover

Charadrius pecuarius C. J. Temminck. “Pluvier patre. Charadrius pecuarius. Temm.” In Nouveau recueil de planches coloriées d’oiseaux, pour servir de suite et de complément aux planches enluminées de Buffon, by C. J. Temminck and Meiffren Laugier de Chartrouse [G. M. J. Meiffren]. Paris: F. G. Levrault, 1823, livr. 31: pl. 183. (Collated and republished as Nouveau recueil de planches coloriées d’oiseaux, pour servir de suite et de complément aux planches enluminées de Buffon, édition in-folio et in-4⁰ de l’Imprimerie royale, 1770, by C. J. Temminck and Meiffren Laugier de Chartrouse [G. M. J. Meiffren]. Paris: F. G. Levrault, 1838, 5: pl. 183, name on following page [231].)

Charadrius tricollaris Vieillot, 1818 Three-banded Plover

Charadrius tricollaris Louis Pierre Vieillot. “Le Pluvier a triple collier Charadrius tricollaris, Vieill.” In Nouveau dictionnaire d’histoire naturelle, appliquée aux arts, à l’agriculture, à l’économie rurale et domestique, à la médecine, etc., edited by Société de naturalistes et d’agriculteurs. Paris: Deterville, 1818, 27:147.

Charadrius alexandrinus Linnaeus, 1758 Kentish Plover

[Charadrius] alexandrinus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th ed. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:150.

Charadrius mongolus Pallas, 1776 Lesser Sand Plover

Charadrius mongolus P. S. Pallas. “Anhang zum dritten Theil. Descriptiones animalium.” In Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Rußischen Reichs. Theil 3, Buch 2, Reise aus Sibirien zurück an die Wolga im 1773sten Jahr. St. Petersburg: Kaiserlichen Academie der Wissenschaften, 1776: 700.

C. m. atrifrons Wagler, 1829

Ch[aradrius] atrifrons [J. G.] columbinus Wagler. “Beiträge und Bemerkungen zo dem ernsten Bandeseines Systema avium [Part 2].” Isis von Oken, Bd. 22, Heft. 6 (1829): col. 645–664, col. 650.

Charadrius mongolus atrifrons Ernst Hartert. Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. R. Friedländer & Sohn, 1920, Heft 11–12 (Bd. 2, Heft 5–6): 1543. (Collated and republished in Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. R. Friedländer & Sohn, 1921, Bd. 2:1543.)

C. m. mongolus Pallas, 1776

Charadrius leschenaultii Lesson, 1826 Greater Sand Plover

Charadrius Leschenaultii [R. P.] Lesson. “Le Pluvier de Leschenault: Charadrius Leschenaultii, Less.” In Dictionnaire des sciences naturelles, dans lequel on traite méthodiquement des différens êtres de la nature, considérés soit en eux-mêmes, d’après l’état actuel de nos connoissances, soit relativement à l’utilité qu’en peuvent retirer la médecine, l’agriculture, le commerce et les artes. Suivi d’une biographie des plus célèbres naturalistes, edited by F. Cuvier. Strasbourg: F. G. Levrault, 1826, 42:36.

C. l. columbinus Wagler, 1829

Ch[aradrius] [J. G.] columbinus Wagler. “Beiträge und Bemerkungen zo dem ernsten Bandeseines Systema avium [Part 2].” Isis von Oken, Bd. 22, Heft. 6 (1829): col. 645–664, col. 650.

Charadrius leschenaultii columbinus Stanley Cramp, ed. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palearctic. Vol. 3, Waders to Gulls. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983. [not seen]

C. l. leschenaultii Lesson, 1826

Charadrius asiaticus Pallas, 1773 Caspian Plover

Charadrius asiaticus P.S. Pallas. “Anhang zum zweiten Theil. Descriptiones animalium.” In Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Rußischen Reichs. Pt. 2, Buch 2, Reise durch verschiedene Theile des Rußischen Reichs im 1771sten Jahr. St. Petersburg: Kaiserlichen Academie der Wissenschaften, 1773:715.

Charadrius veredus Gould, 1848 Oriental Plover

Charadrius veredus John Gould. “On Seven New Species of Australian Birds.” Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, [pt. 16], no. 180 (1848): 38–40, 38.

Charadrius morinellus Linnaeus, 1758 Eurasian Dotterel

[Charadrius] Morinellus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th ed. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:150.