Birds of the Western Palearctic

. . . being a bibliography of bird species of the western Palearctic region, comprising the protonyms and currently valid scientific names referenced comprehensively, including some synonyms.

The list combines the species listed by the Dutch Birding Bird Names document (Commissie Systematiek Nederlandse Avifauna, 2021) with taxonomic systematics of IOC World Bird List (edited by Gill et al. 2021).

. . . a work in progress.


STRUTHIONIDAE Vigors, 1825

Nicholas Aylward Vigors. “Observations on the Natural Affinities That Connect the Orders and Families of Birds.” Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 14, pt. 3 (1825): 413.

Struthio Linnaeus, 1758

Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ . . . . 10th ed. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:155.

Struthio camelus Linnaeus, 1758 Common Ostrich / Struisvogel

[Struthio] Camelus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ . . . . 10th ed. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:155.

ANATIDAE Leach, 1920

W. E. Leach. Synopsis of the Contents of the British Museum. 17th edn. London: Richard and Arthur Taylor, 1820, 68*.

Dendrocygna Swainson, 1837

Dendrocygna William Swainson. On the Natural History and Classification of Birds. The Cabinet Cyclopædia, edited by Dionysius Lardner. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, and John Taylor, 1837, 2: 365. Type species: Dendrocygna arcuata.

Dendrocygna bicolor (Vieillot, 1816) Fulvous Whistling Duck / Rosse Fluiteend

Anas bicolor Louis Pierre Vieillot. “Le Canard roux et noir, Anas bicolor, Vieill.” In Nouveau dictionnaire d’histoire naturelle…, edited by Société de naturalistes et d’agriculteurs. Paris: Deterville, 1816, 5: 136–137 – type loc. Paraguay.

Dendrocygna bicolor Committee of the American Ornithologists’ Union. “Fourteenth Supplement to the American Ornithologists’ Union Check-list of North American Birds.” Auk 33, n.s., 25, no. 3 (1908): 362.

Dendrocygna javanica (Horsfield, 1821) Lesser Whistling Duck / Indische Fluiteend

Anas Javanica Thomas Horsfield. “Systematic Arrangement and Description of Birds from the Island of Java.” Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 13, pt 1 (1821), 199 – type coll. Java, British Empire [Indonesia], 1811–1817, Th. Horsfield.

D[endrocygna] javanica T. C. Jerdon. The Birds of India . . . . Calcutta: George Wyman, 1864, 3: 789.

Branta Scopoli, 1769

Branta Ioannis Antonii Scopoli [Giovanni Antonio Scopoli]. Annus I historico-naturalis. Lipsiæ [Leipzig]: Verlag von Christ. Gottlob Hilscheri, 1769, 67.

Branta bernicla (Linnaeus, 1758) (Dark-bellied) Brant Goose / Rotgans

Anas Bernicla Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae . . . . 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 124 – type loc. Europa boreali [Northern Europe].

[Branta] bernicla H. M. Bannister. “A Sketch of the Classification of American Anserinæ.” Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia [22], Nov. 1870: 131.

B. b. nigricans (Lawrence, 1846) Black Brant / Zwarte Rotgans

Anser nigricans George N. Lawrence. “Description of a New Species of Anser.” Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York 4, no. 6–7 (1846): 171–172, pl. 12Egg Harbor, New Jersey, USA, January 1846, G. N. Lawrence.

[Branta bernicla] var. nigricans Elliott Coues. Key to North American Birds . . . . Salem, MA: Naturalists’ Agency, 1872, 284, fig. 184b.

B. b. bernicla (Linnaeus, 1758)

B. b. hrota (Müller, 1776) Pale-bellied Brant Goose / Witbuikrotgans

Anas Hrota Othone Friderico Müller [Otto Friedrich Müller]. Zoologiae Danicae prodromus; seu, Animalium Daniae et Norvegiae indigenarum…. Hafniæ [Copenhagen]: Typis Hallageriis, 1776, 14.

Branta bernicla hrota James Lee Peters. Check-list of Birds of the World. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1931, 1:149.

Branta ruficollis (Pallas, 1769) Red-breasted Goose / Roodhalsgans

Anser ruficollis P. S. Pallas. Spicilegia zoologica, quibus novae imprimis et obscurae animalium species…. Berolini [Berlin]: Gottl. August. Lange, 1769, fasc. 6, 21, pl. 4. Collated and republished in Spicilegia zoologica. Berolini [Berlin]: Gottl. August. Lange, 1774, 1: fasc. 6, 21, pl. 4 – type loc. Sibirica.

Branta ruficollis Tommaso Salvadori. “Elenco degli uccelli italiani.” Annali del Museo civico di storia naturale di Genova 23, 2nd ser., 3 (1886): 254.

Branta canadensis (Linnaeus, 1758) Canada Goose / Grote Canadese Gans

Anas canadensis Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 123 – type loc. Canada.

Branta canadensis H. M. Bannister. “A Sketch of the Classification of American Anserinæ.” Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia [22], Nov. 1870: 131.

B. c. parvipes (Cassin, 1852) Lesser (Intermediate) Canada Goose / Middelste Canadese Gans

Anser parvipes John Cassin. “Descriptions of New Species of Birds, Specimens of Which Are in the Collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.” Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 6, no. 5 (1862), 187–188 – type coll. Vera Cruz [Veracruz], Mexico, Marmaduke Burrough.

[Branta canadensis] parvipes John. W. Aldrich. “Speciation in the White-cheeked Geese.” Wilson Bulletin58, no. 1 (1946): 96.

B. c. interior Todd, 1938 Todd’s Canada Goose / Todds Canadese Gans

Branta canadensis interior W. E. Clyde Todd. “A New Eastern Race of the Canada Goose.” Auk 55, no. 4 (1938), 662 – type coll. Port Harrison [Inunjuak], Hudson Bay, QC, Canada, 26 May 1930, W. E. C. Todd.

B. c. canadensis (Linnaeus, 1758) Atlantic Canada Goose / Atlantische Canadese Gans

Branta leucopsis (Bechstein, 1803) Barnacle Goose / Brandgans

Anas leucopsis Johann Matthäus Bechstein. Ornithologisches Taschenbuch von und für Deutschland; oder, Kurze Beschreibung aller Vögel Deutschlands für Liebhaber dieses Theils der Naturgeschichte. Leipzig : Carl Friedrich Enoch Richter, 1803, pt 2, 424–425 – type loc. Norden der Erde [Nordic countries].

[Branta] canadensis H. M. Bannister. “A Sketch of the Classification of American Anserinæ.” Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia [22], Nov. 1870: 131.

Branta hutchinsii (Richardson, 1832) Cackling Goose / Kleine Canadese Gans

Anser Hutchinsii John Richardson. “Anser Hutchinsii (Richards.) Hutchin’s Barnacle Goose.” In The Birds. Pt 2 of Fauna boreali-americana; or, The Zoology of the Northern Parts of British America…, by William Swainson and John Richardson. London: John Murray, 1832 (“1831”), 470–471 – type coll. Melville Peninsula, District of Franklin [Nunavut], Canada, 19 June 1822, Second Voyage of Captain William Edward Parry.

[Branta] hutchinsii H. M. Bannister. “A Sketch of the Classification of American Anserinæ.” Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia [22], Nov. 1870: 131.

B. h. minima Ridgway, 1885 Ridgway’s (Dark) Cackling Goose / Kleinste Canadese Gans

Branta minima Robert Ridgway. “Note on the Anser leucopareius of Brandt.” 8, no. 475, no. 2 (1885), 21–22.

Branta hutchinsii minima John. W. Aldrich. “Speciation in the White-cheeked Geese.” Wilson Bulletin58, no. 1 (1946): 95.

B. h. taverneri Delacour, 1951 Taverner’s Cackling Goose / Taverners Canadese Gans

Branta hutchinsii taverni Jean Delacour. “Preliminary Note on the Taxonomy of Canada Geese, Branta canadensis.” American Museum Novitates, no. 1537 (1951), 7 – type coll. Colusa, CA, US, 4 December 1913, H. W. Marsden.

B. h. hutchinsii (Richardson, 1832) Richardson’s Cackling Goose / Kleine Canadese Gans

Anser Brisson, 1760

Anser M. J. Brisson. Ornithologia; sive Synopsis methodica sistens avium divisionem in ordines, sectiones, genera, species, ipsarumque varietates…/Ornithologie; ou, Méthode contenant la division des oiseaux en ordres, sections, genres, espéces & leurs variétés…. Paris: Cl. Jean-Baptiste Bauche, 1760, 1: 58, 6: 261–262.

Anser indicus (Latham, 1790) Bar-headed Goose / Indische Gans

[Anas] indica Joannis Latham [John Latham]. Index ornithologicus; sive, Systema ornithologiae…. Londini [London]: Sumptibus authoris, 1790, 2: 839–840 – type loc. India.

Anser Indica James Francis Stephens. “Bar-headed Goose (Anser Indica).” In Birds. Vol. 12, pt 2 of General Zoology; or, Systematic Natural History, by George Shaw. London: J. and A. Arch; Longman, Hurst; E. Jeffery and Son; J. Mawman; Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy; J. Booth; Sherwood; G. B. Whittaker; R. Scholey; S. Bagster; Rodwell and Martin; R. Saunders; Hamilton, Adams; Simpkin and Marshall; J. Duncan; T. and J. Allman; C. Smith; G. Wightman, 1824, 36.

[Anser] indicus [Hinrich Lichtenstein]. Nomenclator avium Musei zoologici berolinensis [Namenverzeichniss der in der zoologischen Sammlung der Königlichen Universität zu Berlin aufgestellten Arten von Vögeln . . . ]. Berlin: Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1854, 101.

Anser rossii Cassin, 1861 Ross’s Goose / Ross’ Gans

Anser Rossii J. Cassin. “Communication in Reference to a New Species of Goose from Arctic America.” Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 13 (1861), 72–73 – type coll. Great Slave Lake, NT, Canada, 29 May 1860, R. Kennicott.

Anser caerulescens (Linnaeus, 1758) Snow Goose / Sneeuwgans

[Anas] cærulescens Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 124 – type loc. Canada.

A[nser] Cærulescens [P. J.] Bonnaterre and L. P. Vieillot. Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature. Ornithologie. Paris: Agasse, 1823, 1:115, Planches: pl. 32 fig. 1.

Anser anser (Linnaeus, 1758) Greylag Goose / Grauwe Gans

[Anas] Anser Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 123 – type loc. Europe and America.

Anas [(Anser)] anser R. P. Lesson. Traité d’ornithologie . . . . Paris: F. G. Levrault, 1831, 628.

Anser anser Ernst Hartert. Katalog der Vogelsammlung in Museum der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Frankfurt am Main. Frankfurt am Main: Gebrüder Knauer, 1891, 226.

Anser fabalis (Latham, 1787) Taiga Bean Goose / Taigarietgans

[Anas] Fabalis John Latham. Supplement to the General Synopsis of Birds. London: Leigh and Sotheby, 1787, 297 (name).

Anser fabalis T. Salvadori. Catalogue of the Chenomorphæ (Palamedeæ, Phœnicopteri, Anseres), Crypturi, and Ratitæ in the Collection of the British Museum. Vol. 27 of Catalogue of the Birds of the British Museum. London: Trustees [of the British Museum (Natural History), 1895, 99.

A. f. fabalis (Latham, 1787)

A. f. middendorffii Severtsov, 1873 Middendorff’s Bean Goose / Middendorffs Rietgans

Anser Middendorfii N.A. Severtsov. ‘Вертикальное и горизонтальное распределение Туркестанских животных’ [Vertical and horizontal distribution of Turkestan fauna]. Известия Императорском общества любителей естествознания, антропологии и этнографии [News of the Imperial Society of Devotees of Natural History, Anthropology and Ethnography] 8, no. 2 (1873), 66 (table), 149 (text). Republished in ‘Faune des vertébrés du Turkestan.’ Translated by Léon Olphe Galliard. Zeitschrift für die gesammte Ornithologie 4, nos. 1–2 (1887), 140–141. And republished in H.E. Dresser ‘Notes on Severtzoff’s “Fauna of Turkestan” (Turkestanskie Jevotnie)’. Translated by H.E. Dresser and Carl Craemers. Ibis, 3rd ser., vol. 6, no. 24 (1876), 416–417 – type Oudskoï Ostrog, Khabarovsk Territory [Khabarovsk Krai], Russia.

Anser fabalis middeldorffii Paul A. Johnsgard. “Order Anseriformes.” In Check-list of Birds of the World, edited by Ernst Mayr and G. William Cottrell. 2nd ed. Cambridge, MA: Museum of Comparative Zoology, 1979, 1:436.

Anser brachyrhynchus Baillon, 1834 Pink-footed Goose / Kleine Rietgans

[Anser] Brachyrhynchus L. A. F. Baillon. “Catalogue des Mammiferes, Oiseaux, Reptiles, Poissons et Mollusques testacés marins, observés dans l’arrondissementd’Abbeville.” Mémoires de la Société royale d’émulation d’Abbeville, 2nd ser., 1 (1834, “1833”), 74–75 – type loc. Arrondissement d’Abbeville, Dept. of Somme, France.

Anser serrirostris Gould, 1852 Tundra Bean Goose / Toendrarietgans

Anser serrirostris John Gould. “On a New Species of Goose from China, Collected by the Late Lieut. Ince at Shanghai.” Literary Gazette and Journal of the Belles Lettres, Science and Art, no. 1836 (1852), 306 – type coll. Shanghai, China, J. M. R. Ince.

Anser albifrons (Scopoli, 1769) Greater White-fronted Goose / Kolgans

Branta albifrons Ioannis Antonii Scopoli [Giovanni Antonio Scopoli]. Annus I historico-naturalis. Lipsiæ [Leipzig]: Verlag von Christ. Gottlob Hilscheri, 1769, 69.

Anser albifrons Johann Matthäus Bechstein. Gemeinnützige Naturgeschichte Deutschlands nach allen drey Reichen: Ein Handbuch zur deutlichern und vollständigern Selbstbelehrung besonders für Forstmänner, Jugendlehrer und Oekonomen. 2nd ed. Leipzig: Fr. Chr. Wilh. Vogel, 1809, Bd. 4, Abt. 2:898, pl. 36 fig 2.

A. a. flavirostris Dalgety & Scott, 1948 Greenland White-fronted Goose / Groenlandse Kolgans

Anser albifrons flavirostris C. T. Dalgety and Peter Scott. “A New Race of the Whitefronted Goose.” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 68, no. 6 (1948), 115–117 – type coll. North Slob, Co. Wexford, Éire [Ireland], 26 November 1947, C. T. Dalgety.

A. a. albifrons (Scopoli, 1769)

Anser erythropus (Linnaeus, 1758) Lesser White-fronted Goose / Dwerggans

[Anas] erythropus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 123 – type loc. Europa [Europe].

Anser erythropus Alfred Newton. “Remarks on the Anas (Anser) erythropus of Linnæus.” Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pt. 28, no. 438 (1860): 341.

Cygnus Garsault, 1764

[François Alexandre Pierre] de Garsault. Les figures des plantes et animaux d’usage en medecine. Paris: printed by author, [1764], pl. 688.

Cygnus atratus (Latham, 1790) Black Swan / Zwarte Zwaan

Anas atrata Joannis Latham [John Latham]. Index ornithologicus; sive, Systema ornithologiae . . . . Londini [London]: Sumptibus authoris, 1790, 2: 834 – type loc. novæ Hollandiæ [Australia].

Cygnus atratus James Francis Stephens. “Black Swan (Cygnus atratus).” In Birds. Vol. 12, pt 2 of General Zoology; or, Systematic Natural History, by George Shaw. London: J. and A. Arch; Longman, Hurst; E. Jeffery and Son; J. Mawman; Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy; J. Booth; Sherwood; G. B. Whittaker; R. Scholey; S. Bagster; Rodwell and Martin; R. Saunders; Hamilton, Adams; Simpkin and Marshall; J. Duncan; T. and J. Allman; C. Smith; G. Wightman, 1824, 18.

Cygnus olor (Gmelin, 1789) Mute Swan / Knobbelzwaan

Anas Olor Jo. Fridr. Gmelin. “Anas Olor.” In Systema naturæ . . ., by Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. 13th edn., edited by Jo. Frid. Gmelin. Lugduni [Lyon]: J. B. Delamolliere, 1789, 1, pt 2, 502 – type loc. Russia [European Russia] and Sibiria [Siberia].

Cygnus olor A. Risso. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes Maritimes. Paris: F.-G. Levrault, 1826, 3: 81.

Cygnus columbianus (Ord, 1815) Whistling Swan / Fluitzwaan

Anas Columbianus George Ord. “Zoology of North America.” In A New Geographical, Historical, and Commercial grammar, and Present State of the Several Kingdoms of the World…, by William Guthrie. Philadelphia: Johnson and Warner, 2: 319 – type loc. Chilluckittequaw nation [land of a Chinookan people].

Cygnus (Olor) columbianus Elliott Coues (ed.). History of the Expedition under the Command of Lewis and Clark . . . . New York: F.P. Harper, 1893, 3: 885, 885n89.

C. c. columbianus (Ord, 1815)

C. c. bewickii Yarrell, 1830

Cygnus Bewickii William Yarrell. “Cygnus Bewickii.” In “Proceedings of Learned Societies. Linnæan Society,” by Richard Taylor and Richard Phillips. Philosophical Magazine . . . , n.s., 7, no. 38 (1830), 146 – type loc. England, UK.

Cygnus columbianus bewickii J. Delacour. “The Swans.” Avicultural Magazine 54, no. 6 (1948): 182.

Cygnus cygnus (Linnaeus, 1758) Whooper Swan / Wilde zwaan

Anas Cygnus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae . . . . 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 122 – type loc. Europa [Europe] and America septentrionali [Northern America].

Cygnus (Olor) cygnus George Robert Gray. Struthiones, Grallæ, and Anseres, with Indices of Generic and Specific Names. Part 3 of Hand-list of Genera and Species of Birds, Distinguishing Those Contained in the British Museum. London: Trustees [of the British Museum], 1871, 78

Plectropterus Stephens, 1824

Plectropterus J. F. StephensPlectropterus. Plectropterus.” In Birds. Vol. 12, pt 2 of General Zoology; or, Systematic Natural History, by George Shaw. London: J. and A. Arch; Longman, Hurst; E. Jeffery and Son; J. Mawman; Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy; J. Booth; Sherwood; G. B. Whittaker; R. Scholey; S. Bagster; Rodwell and Martin; R. Saunders; Hamilton, Adams; Simpkin and Marshall; J. Duncan; T. and J. Allman; C. Smith; G. Wightman, 1824, 6.

Plectropterus gambensis (Linnaeus, 1766) Spur-winged Goose / Spoorwiekgans

Anas gambensis Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 12th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1766, 1: 195 – type loc. Gambensi regno [The Gambia].

Plectropterus gambensis J. F. StephensPlectropterus. Plectropterus.” In Birds. Vol. 12, pt 2 of General Zoology; or, Systematic Natural History, by George Shaw. London: J. and A. Arch; Longman, Hurst; E. Jeffery and Son; J. Mawman; Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy; J. Booth; Sherwood; G. B. Whittaker; R. Scholey; S. Bagster; Rodwell and Martin; R. Saunders; Hamilton, Adams; Simpkin and Marshall; J. Duncan; T. and J. Allman; C. Smith; G. Wightman, 1824, 7.

Sarkidiornis Eyton, 1838

Sarkidiornis T. C. Eyton. A Monograph on the Anatidae, or Duck Tribe. London: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman; Shrewsbury: Eddowes, 1838, 20–21.

Sarkidiornis melanotos (Pennant, 1769) Knob-billed Duck / Knobbeleend

Anser melanotos Thomas Pennant. Indian Zoology. London, 1769, 12–13, pl. 11 – type loc. Ceylon [Sri Lanka].

Sarkidiornis melanotus G. Hartlaub. “Review of Systematische Uebersicht der Vögel Nord-Ost-Afrika’s nebst Abbildung und Beschreibung von 50 Theils unbekannten, Theils noch nicht bildlich dargestellten Arten, by E. Rüppell.” Isis von Oken, Heft 7, 1846: 489.

Sarcidiornis melanotus Edward Blyth. Catalogue of the Birds in the Museum Asiatic Society. Calcutta: [Asiatic] Society, 1849, 302.

Sarkidiornis melanotos A. E. Brehm “Blätter aus meinem ornithologischen Tagebuche [Part 6].” Journal für Ornithologie, 5, Heft 5, no. 29 (1857): 377.

Alopochen Stejneger, 1885

Alopochen Leonhard Stejneger. Natural History of Birds. Vol. 4 of The Standard Natural History, edited by J. S. Kingsley. Boston: S. E. Cassino, 1885, 141.

Alopochen aegyptiaca (Linnaeus, 1766) Egyptian Goose / Nijlgans

[Anas] ægyptiaca Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 12th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1766, 1:197 – type loc. Ægypto [Egypt]?

Alopochen aegyptiacaLeonhard Stejneger. Natural History of Birds. Vol. 4 of The Standard Natural History, edited by J. S. Kingsley. Boston: S. E. Cassino, 1885, 141.

Tadorna Boie, 1822

Tadorna F. Boie. Tagebuch gehalten auf einer Reise durch Norwegen im Jahre 1817, edited by H. Boie. Schleswig: Königliches Taubstummen Institut, 1822, 140 (narr.), 351 (syn.).

Tadorna tadorna (Linnaeus, 1758) Common Shelduck / Bergeend

[Anas] Tadorna Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 122–123 – type loc. Europæ maritimis [maritime Europe].

Tadorna tadorna H. Schlegel. Kritische Übersicht der europäischen Vögel / Revue critique des oiseaux d’Europe. Leiden: A. Arnz, 1844, 115.

Tadorna ferruginea (Pallas, 1764) Ruddy Shelduck / Casarca

Anas ferruginea P.S. Pallas. “Adumbratiunculae avium variarum præcedenti elencho insertarum, sed quae in Systemate naturæ illustr. Linnæi nondum extant.” [Sketches of various birds inserted in the previous list, absent from the Systema naturae of Linneaus.] In Beredeneerde catalogus, van eene, bij uitstek fraayeen weergalooze verzameling, zoo van inlandsche als uitheemsche vogelen, viervoetige en gekorvene dieren . . . , by A. Vroeg. ‘s Gravenhage: Pieter van Os, 1764, 5.

Tadorna ferruginea S. A. Buturlin. “Bemerkungen über die geographische Verbreitung der Vögel im nordöstlichen Sibirien.” Translated by O. Haase. Journal für Ornithologie 56, no. 2 (1908): 285.

Aix Boie, 1828

Aix F. Boie. “Bemerkungen über mehrere neue Vogelgattungen.” Isis von Oken 21, Heft 3 (1828), col. 329.

Aix sponsa (Linnaeus, 1758) Wood Duck / Carolina-eend

[Anas] Sponsa Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 128 – type loc. America septentrionali [North America].

Aix sponsa Charles Lucian Bonaparte [Charles Lucien Bonaparte]. A Geographical and Comparative List of the Birds of Europe and North America. London: John Van Voorst, 1838, 57.

Aix galericulata (Linnaeus, 1758) Mandarin Duck / Mandarijneend

Anas galericulata Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 128 – type loc. China.

Aix galericulata Carlo L. Bonaparte [Charles L. Bonaparte]. “Introduzioneaala class ii. uccelli.” In Mammiferi e uccelli. Vol. 1 of Iconografia della fauna italica per le quattro classi degli animali vertebrati. Roma [Rome]: Tipografia Salviucci, 1841, [9]

Nettapus Brandt, 1836

Nettapus Joanne Friderico Brandt [Johann Friedrich von Brandt]. Aves. Fasc. 1 of Descriptiones et icones animalium Rossicorum novorum vel minus rite cognitorum. Petropoli [Saint Petersburg]: Academiae scientiarum, 1836, 5.

Nettapus coromandelianus (Gmelin, 1789) Cotton Pygmy Goose / Coromandeleend

Anas coromandeliana Jo. Fridr. Gmelin. “[Anas] coromandelianus.” In Systema naturæ…, by Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. 13th edn., edited by Jo. Frid. Gmelin. Lugduni [Lyon]: J. B. Delamolliere, 1789, 1, pt 2, 522–523 – type loc. Coromandel, New Zealand.

Nettapus Coromandelianus [John Edward Gray]. Gallinæ, Grallæ, and Anseres. Pt. 2, sect. 2 of List of the Specimen of Birds in the Collection of the British Museum. London: Trustees [of the British Museum], 1844, 129.

Sibirionetta Boetticher, 1929

Sibirionetta Hans von Boetticher. “Kritische Betrachtungen über Anatiden.” Anzeiger der ornithologischen Gesellschaft Bayerns, Bd. 2, no. 1 (1929), 14 (text), 15 (descr.).

Sibirionetta formosa (Georgi, 1775) Baikal Teal / Siberische taling

Anas formosa Joh. Gottl. Georgi. Bemerkungen einer Reise im Russischen Reich im Jahre 1772. Vol. 1 of Bemerkungen einer Reise im Russischen Reich in den Jahren 1772, 1773 und 1774. St. Peterburg: Kayserliche Academie der Wissenschaften, 1775, 168–169.

Sibirionetta formosa Edward C. Dickinson and J. V. Remsen Jr. “Sibirionetta formosa“. In Non–passerines. Vol. 1 of The Howard and Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World. 4th Edition. Eastbourne: Aves Press, 2013, ??. Republished online. Accessed 5 May 2021. <https://www.aviansystematics.org/4th-edition-checklist?viewfamilies=14>.

Spatula Boie, 1822

Spatula F. Boie. “Ueber Classification, insonderheit der europäischen Vögel.” Isis von Oken, Jg. 1822, Heft 5 (1822), 564.

Spatula querquedula (Linnaeus, 1758) Garganey / Zomertaling

Anas Querquedula Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 126 – type loc. Europæ aquis dulcibus [inland waters of Europe].

Spatula querquedula Edward C. Dickinson and J. V. Remsen Jr. “Spatula querquedula“. In Non–passerines. Vol. 1 of The Howard and Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World. 4th Edition. Eastbourne: Aves Press, 2013, ??. Republished online. Accessed 5 May 2021. <https://www.aviansystematics.org/4th-edition-checklist?viewfamilies=14>.

Spatula cyanoptera (Vieillot, 1816) Cinnamon Teal / Kaneeltaling

Anas cyanoptera Louis Pierre Vieillot. “Le Canard aux ailes bleues, Anas cyanoptera, Vieill.” In Nouveau dictionnaire d’histoire naturelle…, edited by Société de naturalistes et d’agriculteurs. Paris: Deterville, 1816, 5: 104–105 – type loc. Río de la Plata. Argentina/Uruguay and Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Spatula cyanoptera J. Dewey Soper. “Gleanings from the Canadian West – Part 1: Avian Fauna of Islay, Alberta.” 51. [“Shoveller Duck (Spatula cyanoptera)”, error?]

Spatula cyanoptera Edward C. Dickinson and J. V. Remsen Jr. “Spatula cyanoptera“. In Non–passerines. Vol. 1 of The Howard and Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World. 4th Edition. Eastbourne: Aves Press, 2013, ??. Republished online. Accessed 5 May 2021. <https://www.aviansystematics.org/4th-edition-checklist?viewfamilies=14>.

Spatula discors (Linnaeus, 1766) Blue-winged Teal / Blauwvleugeltaling

Anas discors Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 12th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1766, 1: 205 – type loc. America septentrionali [Nprthern America].

Spatula discors Edward C. Dickinson and J. V. Remsen Jr. “Spatula discors“. In Non–passerines. Vol. 1 of The Howard and Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World. 4th Edition. Eastbourne: Aves Press, 2013, ??. Republished online. Accessed 5 May 2021. <https://www.aviansystematics.org/4th-edition-checklist?viewfamilies=14>.

Spatula clypeata (Linnaeus, 1758) Northern Shoveler / Slobeend

Anas clypeata Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 124–125 – type loc. Europæ maritimis [maritime Europe].

Spatula clypeata F. Boie “Ueber Classification, insonderheit der europäischen Vögel.” Isis von Oken, Heft 5 (1822): col. 564.

Mareca Stephens, 1824

Mareca J. F. StephensMareca. Wigeon.” In Birds. Vol. 12, pt 2 of General Zoology; or, Systematic Natural History, by George Shaw. London: J. and A. Arch; Longman, Hurst; E. Jeffery and Son; J. Mawman; Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy; J. Booth; Sherwood; G. B. Whittaker; R. Scholey; S. Bagster; Rodwell and Martin; R. Saunders; Hamilton, Adams; Simpkin and Marshall; J. Duncan; T. and J. Allman; C. Smith; G. Wightman, 1824, 130.

Mareca strepera (Linnaeus, 1758) Gadwall / Krakeend

Anas strepera Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 125 – type loc. Europæ aquis dulcibus [inland waters of Europe].

Mareca strepera Bradley C. Livezey. “A Phylogenetic Classification of Waterfowl (Aves: Anseriformes), Including Selected Fossil Species.” Annals of the Carnegie Museum 66, no. 4 (1997): 477.

Mareca falcata (Georgi, 1775) Falcated Duck / Bronskopeend

Anas falcata Joh. Gottl. Georgi. Bemerkungen einer Reise im Russischen Reich im Jahre 1772. Vol. 1 of Bemerkungen einer Reise im Russischen Reich in den Jahren 1772, 1773 und 1774. St. Peterburg: Kayserliche Academie der Wissenschaften, 1775, 167 – type loc. Baikal, Russia.

Mareca falcata John Cassin. “Birds.” In Narrative of the Expedition of an American Squadron to the China Seas and Japan, Performed in the Years 1852, 1853 and 1854, by M. C. Perry. U.S. Senate Ex. Document No. 79, 33rd Congress, 2nd Session (1856), 2:231.

Mareca penelope Eurasian Wigeon (Linnaeus, 1758)

[Anas] Penelope Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 126 – type loc. Europæ maritimis & paludibus [maritime and waterlogged Europe].

Mareca penelope Prideaux John Selby. Water Birds. Vol. 2 of Illustrations of British Ornithology. Edinburgh: W. H. Lizars, 1833, 324

Mareca americana American Wigeon (Gmelin, 1789)

[Anas] americana Jo. Fridr. Gmelin. “Anas americana.” In Systema naturæ…, by Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. 13th edn., edited by Jo. Frid. Gmelin. Lugduni [Lyon]: J. B. Delamolliere, 1789, 1, pt 2, 526–527 – type loc. America.

Mareca Americana James Francis Stephens. “American Wigeon (Mareca Americana).” In Birds. Vol. 12, pt 2 of General Zoology; or, Systematic Natural History, by George Shaw. London: J. and A. Arch; Longman, Hurst; E. Jeffery and Son; J. Mawman; Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy; J. Booth; Sherwood; G. B. Whittaker; R. Scholey; S. Bagster; Rodwell and Martin; R. Saunders; Hamilton, Adams; Simpkin and Marshall; J. Duncan; T. and J. Allman; C. Smith; G. Wightman, 1824, 135.

Anas Linnaeus, 1758

Anas Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 122.

Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus, 1758 Mallard / Wilde eend

[Anas] platyrhynchos Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 125 – type loc. Europæ maritimis [maritime Europe].

Anas rubripes Brewster, 1902 American Black Duck / Amerikaanse zwarte eend

Anas obscura rubripes William Brewster. “An Undescribed Form of the Black Duck (Anas obscura).” Auk 19, no. 2 (1902), 184–185 – type coll. Lake Umbagog, NH, USA, 9 October 1889, W. Brewster.

A[nas] rubripes Chester A. Reed. Bird Guide: Water Birds, Game Birds and Birds of Prey East of the Rockies. Toronto: Musson, 1906, 79.

Anas capensis Cape Teal Gmelin, 1789

[Anas] capensis Jo. Fridr. Gmelin. “Anas capensis.” In Systema naturæ…, by Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. 13th edn., edited by Jo. Frid. Gmelin. Lugduni [Lyon]: J. B. Delamolliere, 1789, 1, pt 2, 527 – type loc. Caput bonæ spei [Cape of Good Hope], South Africa.

Anas erythrorhyncha Gmelin, 1789 Red-billed Teal / Roodsnavelpijlstaart

[Anas] erythrorhyncha Jo. Fridr. Gmelin. “Anas erythrorhyncha.” In Systema naturæ…, by Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. 13th edn., edited by Jo. Frid. Gmelin. Lugduni [Lyon]: J. B. Delamolliere, 1789, 1, pt 2, 517 – type loc. Caput bonæ spei [Cape of Good Hope], South Africa.

Anas acuta Linnaeus, 1758 Northern Pintail / Pijlstaart

[Anas] acuta Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 126 – type loc. Europæ maritimis [maritime Europe].

Anas crecca Linnaeus, 1758 Eurasian Teal / Wintertaling

[Anas] Crecca Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 126–127 – type loc. Europæ aquis dulcibus [inland waters of Europe].

Anas carolinensis Gmelin, 1789 Green-winged Teal / Amerikaanse wintertaling

[Anas] carolinensis Jo. Fridr. Gmelin. “Anas georgica.” In Systema naturæ…, by Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. 13th edn., edited by Jo. Frid. Gmelin. Lugduni [Lyon]: J. B. Delamolliere, 1789, 1, pt 2, 533 – type loc. Americæ [North America].

Marmaronetta Reichenbach, 1853

Marmaronetta L. Reichenbach. “Die Vögel. The Birds. Aves. Les oiseaux – Systema avium.” In Avium systema nature. Das natürliche System der Vögel…. Dresden und Leipzig: Expedition der Vollständigsten Naturgeschichte (1853), 9. Die vollständigste Naturgeschichte der Schwimmvögel: Aves natatores. Oiseaux nageurs. Dresden: Expedition der volständigsten Naturgeschichte, 1848?, pl. 284, 51b, Novit. 21, fig. 2341–42 (insert?), pl. 335, 51c, Novit. 72, fig. 2652 (insert?).

Marmaronetta angustirostris (Ménétries, 1832) Marbled Duck / Marmereend

Anas angustirostris E. Ménétries. Catalogue raisonné des objets de zoologie. Recueillis dans un voyage au Caucase et jusqu’aux frontières actuelles de la Perse. St.-Pétersbourg [Saint Petersburg]: Académie impériale des sciences, 1832, 58 – type loc. near Lenkoran [Lankaran], Persia [Iran].

[Marmaronetta] angustirostris L. Reichenbach. “Die Vögel. The Birds. Aves. Les oiseaux – Systema avium.” In Avium systema nature. Das natürliche System der Vögel…. Dresden und Leipzig: Expedition der Vollständigsten Naturgeschichte (1853), 9. Die vollständigste Naturgeschichte der Schwimmvögel: Aves natatores. Oiseaux nageurs. Dresden: Expedition der volständigsten Naturgeschichte, 1848?, pl. 284, 51b, Novit. 21, fig. 2341–42 (insert?), pl. 335, 51c, Novit. 72, fig. 2652 (insert?).

Netta Kaup, 1829

Jakob Kaup. Skizzirte Entwickelungs-Geschichte und natürliches System der europäischen Thierwelt. Darmstadt/Leipzig: Carl Wilhelm Leske, 1829, 1: 102.

Netta rufina (Pallas, 1773) Red-crested Pochard / Krooneend

Anas rufina P.S. Pallas. “Anhang zum zweiten Theil. Descriptiones animalium.” In Reise durch verschiedene Theile des Rußischen Reichs im 1771sten Jahr. Pt 2, Buch 2 of Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Rußischen Reichs. St. Petersburg: Kaiserlichen Academie der Wissenschaften, 1773, 713. And Physicalische Reise durch einige Provinzen des Rußischen Reichs im 1770stes Jahr. Pt 2 of Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Rußischen Reichs. St. Petersburg: Kaiserlichen Academie der Wissenschaften, 1773, 237 (narr.) – type coll. Mari Caspio [Caspian Sea], Summer 1770, Nicetas Sokolof.

Netta rufina Robert Ridgway. “Some Emended Names of North AMerican Birds.” Proceedings of the United States National Museum 8, no. 23 (1885): 355.

Netta erythrophthalma (Wied-Neuwied, 1833) Southern Pochard / Bruine krooneend

A[nas] erythrophthalma Maximilian zu Wied [Maximilian zu Wied-Neuwied]. Beiträge zur Naturgeschichte von Brasilien. Weimar: Verlage des Landes-Industrie-Comptoirs, 1833, Bd. 4, Abt. 2, 929–932 – type coll. Lagoa do Braço, Villa de Belmonte [Belmonte?], November 1816(?), Bahia, Brazil, hunters for Wied-Neuwied.

[Netta] erythrophthalma Jean Delacour and Ernst Mayr. “The Family Anatidae.” Wilson Bulletin 57, no. 1 (1945): 40.

Aythya Boie, 1822

Aythya F. Boie. Tagebuch gehalten auf einer Reise durch Norwegen im Jahre 1817, edited by H. Boie. Schleswig: Königliches Taubstummen Institut, 1822, 308 (narr.), 351 (syn.).

Aythya valisineria (Wilson, 1814) Canvasback / Grote tafeleend

Anas valisineria Alexander Wilson. American Ornithology; or, The Natural History of the Birds of the United States. Philadelphia: Bradford and Inskeep, 1814, 8: 103, pl. 70, fig. 5 – type loc. Hudson River, Delaware River, rivers flowing into Chesapeake Bay, U.S.A.

Aythya Valisneria F. Boie. “Generalübersicht der ornithologischen Ordnungen, Familien und Gattungen.” Isis von Oken, Heft 10 (1826), col. 980.

Aythya Vallisneria Charles Lucian Bonaparte [Charles Lucien Bonaparte]. A Geographical and Comparative List of the Birds of Europe and North America. London: John Van Voorst, 1838, 58.

Aythya valisineria Jean Delacour and Ernst Mayer. “The Family Anatidae.” Wilson Bulletin 57, no. 1 (1945): 26.

Aythya americana (Eyton, 1838) Redhead / Amerikaanse tafeleend

Fuligula americana T. C. Eyton. A Monograph on the Anatidae, or Duck Tribe. London: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman; Shrewsbury: Eddowes, 1838, 155–156 – type loc. North America.

Aythya americana Spencer F. Baird. Birds. With the co-operation of John Cassin and George N. Lawrence. Vol. 9, pt. 2 of General Report upon the Zoology of the Several Pacific Railroad Routes, of Reports of Explorations and Surveys, to Ascertain the Most Practicable and Economical Route for a Railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean . . . , U.S. Senate Ex. Document No. 78, 33rd Congress, 2nd Session (1858), 793.

Aythya ferina (Linnaeus, 1758) Common Pochard / Tafeleend

Anas ferina Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae . . . . 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 126 – type loc. Europæ maritimis [maritime Europe].

[Aythya] ferina F. Boie. “Ueber Classification, insonderheit der europäischen Vögel.” Isis von Oken, Jg. 1822, Heft 5 (1822), 564.

Aythya nyroca (Güldenstädt, 1770) Ferruginous Duck / Witoogeend

Anas Nyroca A. I. Gueldenstaedt [J. A. Güldenstädt]. “Anas Nyroca.” Novi commentarii Academiae scientiarum imperialis Petropolitanae 14, pt 1 (1770), 403–407 – type loc. River Don basin 54–55° N.

[Aythya] nyroca F. Boie. “Ueber Classification, insonderheit der europäischen Vögel.” Isis von Oken, Jg. 1822, Heft 5 (1822), 564.

Aythya collaris (Donovan, 1809) Ring-necked Duck / Ringsnaveleend

Anas Collaris E. Donovan. The Natural History of British Birds; or, A Selection of the Most Rare, Beautiful and Interesting Birds Which Inhabit This Country . . . . London: published by author, and F. C. and J. Rivington, 1809, 6: pl. 147, descr. on following pp. – type loc. Lincolnshire, U.K.

Aythya collaris Robert Ridgway. “Some Emended Names of North AMerican Birds.” Proceedings of the United States National Museum 8, no. 23 (1885): 356.

Aythya fuligula (Linnaeus, 1758) Tufted Duck / Kuifeend

[Anas] Fuligula Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae . . . . 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 128 – type loc. Europæ maritimis [maritime Europe].

[Aythya] fuligula F. Boie. “Ueber Classification, insonderheit der europäischen Vögel.” Isis von Oken, Jg. 1822, Heft 5 (1822), 564.

Aythya marila (Linnaeus, 1761) Greater Scaup / Topper

Anas Marila Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Fauna svecica . . . . 2nd edn. Stockholmiæ: Laurentii Salvii, 1761, 39 – type loc. Lapponia [Sápmi].

[Aythya] marila F. Boie. “Ueber Classification, insonderheit der europäischen Vögel.” Isis von Oken, Jg. 1822, Heft 5 (1822), 564.

Aythya affinis (Eyton, 1838) Lesser Scaup / Kleine topper

Fuligula affinis T. C. Eyton. A Monograph on the Anatidae, or Duck Tribe. London: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman; Shrewsbury: Eddowes, 1838, 157 – type loc. North America.

Aythya affinis Leonhard Stejneger. Results of Ornithological Explorations in the Commander Islands and in Kamtschatka. Bulletin of the United States National Museum, no. 29 (1885): 161.

Polysticta Eyton, 1836

Polysticta T. C. Eyton. “A Catalogue of British Birds.” In A History of the Rarer British Birds. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, and Houlston and Son, 1836, 58.

Polysticta stelleri (Pallas, 1769) Steller’s Eider / Stellers Eider

Anas Stelleri Petri S. Pallas [Peter S. Pallas]. Spicilegia zoologica…. Berolini [Berlin]: Gottl. August. Lange, 1769, 1, fasc. 6, 35–36, pl. 5 – type coll. Kamchatka, Russia, G. W. Steller.

Polysticta stelleri T. C. Eyton. “A Catalogue of British Birds.” In A History of the Rarer British Birds. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, and Houlston and Son, 1836, 58.

Somateria Leach, 1819

Somateria W. E. Leach. “Genus Somateria, Leach (Eider).” In A Voyage of Discovery, Made under the Orders of the Admiralty, in His Majesty’s Ships Isabella and Alexander, for the Purpose of Exploring Baffin’s Bay, and Inquiring into thxe Probability of a North-west Passage, by John Ross. London: John Murray, 1819, 48.

Somateria fischeri (Brandt, 1847) Spectacled Eider / Brileider

Fuligula (Lampronetta) Fischeri Joannes Fridericus Brandt [Johann Friedrich von Brandt]. Fulligulam (Lampronettam) Fischeri. Novam avium Rossaricum speciem . . . . Petropoli [Saint Petersburg]: Typis Academiae caesareae scientiarum, 1847, 10 (text), 14–19 (descr.), fig. 1–4. Republished as “Fulligulam (Lampronettam) Fischeri. Novam avium Rossaricum speciem . . . .” Mémoires de l’Académie impériale des sciences de St.-Pétersbourg, 6th ser., 8, pt 2: Sciences naturelles, 6 (1849), 6 (narr.), 10–15, fig. 1–4 – type loc. insula Steffens [St. Michael Island], Norton Sound, AL, U.S.

S[omateria] Fischeri George Robert Gray. The Genera of Birds . . . . London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1849, 3: Appendix 28.

Somateria spectabilis (Linnaeus, 1758) King Eider / Koningseider

Anas spectabilis Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae . . . . 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 123 – type loc. Canada and Svecia [Sweden].

Somateria Spectabilis W. E. Leach. “Genus Somateria, Leach (Eider).” In A Voyage of Discovery, Made under the Orders of the Admiralty, in His Majesty’s Ships Isabella and Alexander, for the Purpose of Exploring Baffin’s Bay, and Inquiring into thxe Probability of a North-west Passage, by John Ross. London: John Murray, 1819, 48.

Somateria mollissima (Linnaeus, 1758) Common Eider / Eider

Anas mollissima Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae . . . . 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 124 – type loc. Europa boreali, pelagica [northern, pelagic Europe].

Somateria mollissima F. Boie. “Ueber Classification, insonderheit der europäischen Vögel.” Isis von Oken, Jg. 1822, Heft 5 (1822), 564.

S. m. v-nigrum Bonaparte & Gray, 1855 Pacific Eider / Pacifische Eider

Somateria v. nigrum Ch. Bonaparte and George R. Gray. “M. le Prince Ch. Bonaparte présente, au nom de M. Gray un catalogue des oiseaux du Musée britannique, et indique à cette occasion les principales espèces nouvelles qu’il a observées récemment en Angleterre et en Écosse.” Also indexed as
“M. le Prince Ch. Bonaparte présente un exemplaire du catalogue des genres et sous-genres d’oiseaux contenus dans le Musée britannique, par M. J.-Edw. Gray [sic] et indique à cette occasion les principales espèces nouvelles qu’il vient d’observer dans son récent voyage en Écosse et en Angleterre.” Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l’Académie des sciences 41 (1855), 661 – type loc. most northern parts of America.

Somateria mollissima v-nigrum H. Hocke. “Ueber Enteneier und deren Merkmale [Part 4].”Zeitschift für Oologie 11, no. 4 (1901): 52.

S. m. dresseri Sharpe, 1871 Dresser’s Eider / Dressers Eider

Somateria dresseri R. B. Sharpe. “On the American Eider Duck.” Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 4th ser., 8, no. 43 (1871), 51–53, fig. 1.

Somateria mollissima var(?) dresseri Elliott Coues. Birds of the Northwest: A Hand-book of the Ornithology of the Region Drained by the Missouri River and Its Tributaries. Miscellaneous Publications Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories No. 3. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1874, 580.

Somateria mollissima dresseri Robert Ridgway. “A Catalogue of the Birds of North America.” Proceedings of the United States National Museum 3, no. 13 (1880): 205.

S. m. mollissima (Linnaeus, 1758)

Histrionicus Lesson, 1828

histrionicus R. P. Lesson. Manuel d’ornithologie, ou Description des genres et des principales espèces d’oiseaux. Paris: Roret, 1828, 2:415.

Histrionicus histrionicus (Linnaeus, 1758) Harlequin Duck / Harlekijkeend

Anas histrionica Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae . . . . 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 127 – type loc. America.

Bucephala (Histrionicus) histrionica George Robert Gray. Struthiones, Grallæ, and Anseres, with Indices of Generic and Specific Names. Part 3 of Hand-list of Genera and Species of Birds, Distinguishing Those Contained in the British Museum. London: Trustees [of the British Museum], 1871, 87.

Histrionicus histrionicus Adolphus Boucard [Adolphe Boucard]. Catalogus avium. Hucusque descriptorum. Londini [London], 1876, 60.

Melanitta Boie, 1822

Melanitta F. Boie. Tagebuch gehalten auf einer Reise durch Norwegen im Jahre 1817, edited by H. Boie. Schleswig: Königliches Taubstummen Institut, 1822, 7 (narr.), 351 (syn.).

Melanitta perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758) Surf Scoter / Brilzee-eend

Anas perspicillata Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae . . . . 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 125 – type loc. Canada.

[Melanitta] perspicillata F. Boie. “Ueber Classification, insonderheit der europäischen Vögel.” Isis von Oken, Jg. 1822, Heft 5 (1822), 564.

Melanitta fusca (Linnaeus, 1758) Velvet Scoter / Grote Zee-eend

Anas fusca Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae . . . . 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 123 – type loc. oceano Europæo [oceanic Europe].

[Melanitta] fusca F. Boie. “Ueber Classification, insonderheit der europäischen Vögel.” Isis von Oken, Jg. 1822, Heft 5 (1822), 564.

Melanitta deglandi White-winged Scoter (Bonaparte, 1850) White-winged Scoter / Amerikaanse Grote Zee-eend

Oïdemia deglandi Charles Lucien Bonaparte. Revue critique de l’Ornithologie Européenne de M. le docteur Degland (de Lille). Bruxelles [Brussels]: V. Wouters, 1850, 108 – type loc. America.

Melanetta deglandi Ch. Bonaparte. “Conspectus anserum systematicus.” In “Excursion dans les divers Musées d’Allemagne, de Hollande et de Belgique (suite et fin) [Part 4] et Tableaux parallélique de l’ordre des Palmipèdes.” Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l’Académie des sciences 43, no. 13 (1856): 651.Oidemia (Melanitta) Deglandii George Robert Gray. Struthiones, Grallæ, and Anseres, with Indices of Generic and Specific Names. Part 3 of Hand-list of Genera and Species of Birds, Distinguishing Those Contained in the British Museum. London: Trustees [of the British Museum], 1871, 89.

Melanitta deglandi Alphonse Dubois. Faune des vertebres de la Belgique. Serie des oiseaux. Bruxelles [Brussels]: C. Muquardt, Th. Falk Sr., 1894, 2:503 (syn.).

Melanitta stejnegeri (Ridgway, 1887) Stejneger’s Scoter / Aziatische Grote Zee-eend

O[idemia (Melanitta)] stejnegeri Robert Ridgway. A Manual of North American Birds. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1887, 112 – type coll. Kamtschatka [Kamchatka], Russia, 1882, L. Stejneger.

[Melanita] stejnegeri P. Baxter, H. Maggs and C. Gibbins. “The White-winged Scoter in Aberdeenshire: A New Scottish Bird.” Scottish Birds 32, no. 3 (2009): 269.

Melanitta nigra (Linnaeus, 1758) Common Scoter / Zwarte Zee-eend

Anas nigra Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae . . . . 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 123 – type loc. Lapponia [Sapmi], Anglia [Great Britain].

[Melanitta] nigra F. Boie. “Ueber Classification, insonderheit der europäischen Vögel.” Isis von Oken, Jg. 1822, Heft 5 (1822), 564.

Melanitta americana (Swainson, 1832) Black Scoter / Amerikaanse Zee-eend

Oidemia Americana William Swainson. “Oidemia Americana (Swainson.) American Scoter.” In The Birds. Pt 2 of Fauna boreali-americana; or, The Zoology of the Northern Parts of British America…, by William Swainson and John Richardson. London: John Murray, 1832 (“1831”), 450–451 – type loc. Hudson’s Bay [Hudson Bay], Canada.

Melanitta americana T. C. Eyton. A Monograph on the Anatidae, or Duck Tribe. London: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, 1838, 144.

Clangula Leach, 1819

Clangula W. E. Leach. “Genus Clangula, Gessner (Garrot).” In A Voyage of Discovery, Made under the Orders of the Admiralty, in His Majesty’s Ships Isabella and Alexander, for the Purpose of Exploring Baffin’s Bay, and Inquiring into the Probability of a North-west Passage, by John Ross. London: John Murray, 1819, 48.

Clangula hyemalis (Linnaeus, 1758) Long-tailed Duck / IJseend

Anas hyemalis Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae . . . . 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 126 – type loc. Europa and America arctica [arctic Europe and America].

Cl[angula] hiemalis [C. L.] Brehm. “Beschluß der Uebersicht der deutschen Vögel.” [= “Uebersicht der deutschen Vögelarten [Part 2].” Isis von Oken 23, Heft 10 (1830), col. 999.

Clangula hyemalis J. P. van Wickevoort Crommelin. “Nouvelles ornithologiques sur la faune des Pays-Bas.” Archives néerlandaises des sciences exactes et naturelles 10, no. 11 (1875): 175.

Bucephala Baird, 1858

Bucephala Spencer F. Baird. Birds. With the co-operation of John Cassin and George N. Lawrence. Vol. 9, pt 2, General Report upon the Zoology of the Several Pacific Railroad Routes, of Reports of Explorations and Surveys, to Ascertain the Most Practicable and Economical Route for a Railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean…, House of Representatives Report no. 91 (1858), xxiii (list), 795 (descr.).

Bucephala albeola (Linnaeus, 1758) Bufflehead / Buffelkopeend

Anas Albeola Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae . . . . 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 124 – type loc. America.

Bucephala albeola Spencer F. Baird. Birds. With the co-operation of John Cassin and George N. Lawrence. Vol. 9, pt. 2 of General Report upon the Zoology of the Several Pacific Railroad Routes, of Reports of Explorations and Surveys, to Ascertain the Most Practicable and Economical Route for a Railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean . . . , U.S. Senate Ex. Document No. 78, 33rd Congress, 2nd Session (1858), 797

Bucephala clangula (Linnaeus, 1758) Common Goldeneye / Brilduiker

Anas Clangula Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 125 – type loc. Europa [Europe].

[Bucephala] clangula George Robert Gray. Struthiones, Grallæ, and Anseres, with Indices of Generic and Specific Names. Part 3 of Hand-list of Genera and Species of Birds, Distinguishing Those Contained in the British Museum. London: Trustees [of the British Museum], 1871, 87

Bucephala islandica (Gmelin, 1789) Barrow’s Goldeneye / IJslandse Brilduiker

Anas islandica Jo. Fridr. Gmelin. “Anas islandica.” In Systema naturæ . . . , by Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. 13th edn., edited by Jo. Frid. Gmelin. Lugduni [Lyon]: J. B. Delamolliere, 1789, 1, pt 2, 541 – type loc. Islandia.

Bucephala islandica Spencer F. Baird. Birds. With the co-operation of John Cassin and George N. Lawrence. Vol. 9, pt. 2 of General Report upon the Zoology of the Several Pacific Railroad Routes, of Reports of Explorations and Surveys, to Ascertain the Most Practicable and Economical Route for a Railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean . . . , U.S. Senate Ex. Document No. 78, 33rd Congress, 2nd Session (1858), 796

Mergellus Selby, 1840

Mergellus P. J. Selby. A Catalogue of the Generic and Sub-generic Types of the Class Aves, Birds, Arranged According to the Natural System . . . . Newcastle: T. and J. Hodgson, 1840, 47.

Mergellus albellus (Linnaeus, 1758) Smew / Nonnetje

Anas Albellus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae . . . . 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:129 – type loc. Europa [Europe].

Mergellus albellus P. J. Selby. A Catalogue of the Generic and Sub-generic Types of the Class Aves, Birds, Arranged According to the Natural System . . . . Newcastle: T. and J. Hodgson, 1840, 47.

Lophodytes Reichenbach, 1853

Lophodytes L. Reichenbach. “Die Vögel. The Birds. Aves. Les oiseaux – Systema avium.” In Avium systema nature. Das natürliche System der Vögel . . . . Dresden und Leipzig: Expedition der Vollständigsten Naturgeschichte (1853), 9. Die vollständigste Naturgeschichte der Schwimmvögel: Aves natatores. Oiseaux nageurs. Dresden: Expedition der volständigsten Naturgeschichte, 1848?, pl. 39, fig. 88–89.

Lophodytes cucullatus (Linnaeus, 1758) Hooded Merganser / Kokardezaagbek

Anas cucullatus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae . . . . 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 129 – type loc. America.

[Lophodytes] cucullatus L. Reichenbach. “Die Vögel. The Birds. Aves. Les oiseaux – Systema avium.” In Avium systema nature. Das natürliche System der Vögel . . . . Dresden und Leipzig: Expedition der Vollständigsten Naturgeschichte (1853), 9. Die vollständigste Naturgeschichte der Schwimmvögel: Aves natatores. Oiseaux nageurs. Dresden: Expedition der volständigsten Naturgeschichte, 1848?, pl. 39, fig. 88–89.

Mergus Linnaeus, 1758

Mergus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae . . . . 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 129.

Mergus merganser Linnaeus, 1758 Common Merganser / Grote Zaagbek

Mergus Merganser Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae . . . . 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 129 – type loc. Europa [Europe].

Mergus serrator Linnaeus, 1758 Red-breasted Merganser / Middelste Zaagbek

Mergus Serrator Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae . . . . 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 129 – type loc. Europa [Europe].

Oxyura Bonaparte, 1828

Charles Lucian Bonaparte [Charles Lucien Bonaparte]. “The Genera of North American Birds, and a Synopsis of the Species Found within the Territory of the United States: Systematically Arranged in Orders and Families [Part 2].” Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York 2, no. 12–14 (1828): 390.

Oxyura jamaicensis (Gmelin, 1789) Ruddy Duck / Rosse stekelstaart

Anas jamaicensis Jo. Fridr. Gmelin. “Anas jamaicensis.” In Systema naturæ . . ., by Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. 13th edn., edited by Jo. Frid. Gmelin. Lugduni [Lyon]: J. B. Delamolliere, 1789, 1, pt 2, 519 – type loc. Jamaica.

Oxyura jamaicensis John C. Phillips. Fuligulinæ (Concluded), Oxyurinæ, Merganettinæ and Merginæ. Vol. 4 of A Natural History of the Ducks. Boston, New York, Houghton Mifflin, 1926, 159, pl. 84.

Oxyura leucocephala (Scopoli, 1769) White-headed Duck / Witkopeend

Anas leucocephala Ioannis Antonii Scopoli [Giovanni Antonio Scopoli]. Annus I historico-naturalis. Lipsiæ [Leipzig]: Verlag von Christ. Gottlob Hilscheri, 1769, 65.

[Oxyura leucocephala] Léon Olphe-Galliard. Contributions à la faune ornithologique de l’Europe occidentale . . . . Bordeaux: Veuve Cadoret, 1887, fasc. 2: 30.

NUMIDIDAE de Sélys Longchamps, 1842

Edm. de Selys Longchamps. Project de classification des oiseaux. In Indication méthodique des mammifères, oiseaux, reptiles et poissions observé jusqu’ice en Belgique. Part 1 of Faune Belge. Liège: H. Dessain, 1842, 273.

Numida Linnaeus, 1764

Carolo v. Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. “Numida.” In Vol. 2 of Museum s:æ r:æ m:tis Adolphi Frederici . . . . In Museum s:æ r:æ m:tis Ludovicæ Ulricæ . . . . Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laur. Salvii, 1764, 27.

Numida meleagris (Linnaeus, 1758) Helmeted Guineafowl / Helmparelhoen

[Phasianus] Meleagris Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae . . . . 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 158 – type loc. Africa.

[Numida] Meleagris Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae . . . . 12th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1766, 1: 273.

ODONTOPHORIDAE Gould, 1944

John Gould. A Monograph of the Odontophorinæ, or Partridges of America. London: published by author, 1844, pt. 1. (Collated and republished in 1850, [iii].)

Alexander Macalister. An Introduction to the Systematic Zoology and Morphology of Vertebrate Animals. Dublin University Press Series. Dublin: Hodges, Foster and Figgis, 1878, 176.

Callipepla Wagler, 1832

[J. G.] Wagler. “Mittheilungen über einige mirkwürdige Thiere.” Isis von Oken, Jg. 1832, Heft 3 (1832), col. 277.

Callipepla californica (Shaw, 1798) California Quail

Tetrao Californicus George Shaw. “Tetrao Californicus.” In Naturæ vivarii / The Naturalist’s Miscellany, by George Shaw and Frederick P. Nodder. [London: Nodder, 1798], fasc. 108., name preceeding pl. 345. (Collated and republished as vol. 9 [1798?], pp. preceeding pl. 345.)

Callipepla californica John Gould. A Monograph of the Odontophorinæ, or Partridges of America. London: published by author, 1844, pl. 16. (Collated and republished in 1850, [vii], pl. [16], text on following pp.)

Colinus Goldfuss, 1820

Georg August Goldfuß. “Colinus, Colin.” In Abt. 2 of Handbuch der Zoologie. Pt. 3, Abt. 2 of Handbuch der Naturgeschichte, zum Gebruach bei Vorlesungen, by G. H. Schubert [G. H. von Schubert]. Nürnberg: Johann Leonhard Schrag, 1820, 220

Colinus virginianus (Linnaeus, 1758) Northern Bobwhite

[Tetrao] virginianus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae . . . . 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 161.

Colinus virginianus Leonhard Stejneger. “Analecta ornithologica, Fourth Series.” Auk 2, no. 1 (1885): 45.

PHASIANIDAE Horsfield, 1821

Phasiani William Elford Leach. The Zoological Miscellany: Being Descriptions of New, or Interesting Animals. London: E. Nodder and Son, 1815, 2:13.

Thomas Horsfield. “Systematic Arrangement and Description of Birds from the Island of Java.” Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 13, pt 1 (1821), 185.

Tetrastes Keyserling & Blasius, 1840

A. von Keyserling and J. H. Blasius. “Systematisches Verzeichniss der Wirbelthire Europa’s.” In Die unterscheidenden Charactere. Buch 1 of Die Wirbelthiere Europa’s. Braunschweig: Friedrich Vieweg und Sohn, 1840, lxiv.

Tetrastes bonasia (Linnaeus, 1758) Hazel Grouse / Hazelhoen

Tetrao Bonasia Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae . . . . 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 160 – type loc. Europa [Europe].

Tetrastes Bonasia A. von Keyserling and J. H. Blasius. “Systematisches Verzeichniss der Wirbelthire Europa’s.” In Die unterscheidenden Charactere. Buch 1 of Die Wirbelthiere Europa’s. Braunschweig: Friedrich Vieweg und Sohn, 1840, 200.

Tetrao Linnaeus, 1758

Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae . . . . 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 159.

Tetrao urogallus Linnaeus, 1758 Western Capercaillie / Auerhoen

Tetrao Urogallus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae . . . . 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 159 – type loc. Europæ [Europe].

Lyrurus Swainson, 1832

William Swainson. “Characters of Genera and Sub-genera Hitherto Undefined.” Appendix 1 of The Birds. Part 2 of Fauna boreali-americana; or, The Zoology of the Northern Parts of British America . . . . London: John Murray, 1832 [“1831”], 497.

Lyrurus tetrix (Linnaeus, 1758) Black Grouse / Korhoen

Tetrao Tetrix Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae . . . . 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 159 – type loc. Europæ [Europe].

Lyrurus tetrix William Swainson. “Characters of Genera and Sub-genera Hitherto Undefined.” Appendix 1 of The Birds. Part 2 of Fauna boreali-americana; or, The Zoology of the Northern Parts of British America . . . . London: John Murray, 1832 [“1831”], 497.

Lyrurus mlokosiewiczi (Taczanowski, 1875) Caucasian Grouse / Kaukasisch Korhoen

Tetrao mlokosiewiczi L. Taczanowski [W. Taczanowski]. “Description d’une nouvelle espèce de Coq de bruyère.” Proceedings of the Scientific Meetings of of the Zoological Society of London for the Year 1875, pt. 2, no. 17 (1875): 267 – type loc. Montagne de Bogosch [Mount Bogosch], near Zakataly [Zaqatala], Azerbaijan.

Lyrurus mlokosiewiczi W. R. Ogilvie-Grant. Catalogue of the Game Birds (Pterocletes, Gallinæ, Opisthocomi, Hemipodii) in the Collection of the British Museum. Vol. 22 of Catalogue of the Birds in the British Museum. London: Trustees [of the British Museum (Matural History)], 1893, 58.

Lagopus Brisson, 1760

M. Brisson. Ornithologia; sive, Synopsis methodica sistens avium divisionem in ordines, sectiones, genera, species, ipsarumque varietates . . . / Ornithologie, ou, Méthode contenant la division des oiseaux en ordres, sections, genres, especes & leurs variétés . . . . Paris: Cl. Jean-Baptiste Bauche, 1760, 1:26 (tab.), 181 (txt.).

Lagopus muta Montin, 1781 Rock Ptarmigan / Alpensneeuwhoen

Tetrao mutus Lars Montin. “Tvånne arter af Snóripan.” Physiographiska Sällskapets handlingar 1, sect. 3 (1781) [“1776”]: 155 – type loc. Alpibus lapponicis [alps of Sápmi].

Lagopus mutus [W. E. Leach]. Systematic Catalogue of the Specimens of the Indigenous Mammalia and Birds That Are Present in the British Museum . . . . London: Richard and Arthur Taylor, 1816, 27. Republished as Leach’s Systematic Catalogue of the Specimens of the Indigenous Mammalia and Birds in the British Museum. Edited by Osbert Salvin. London: Willughby Society, 1882, 27.

Lagopus muta Leonhard Stejneger. “A Brief Review of the Lagopodes Belonging to the Group Attagen Kaup.” Zeitschrift für die gesammte Ornithologie 1, Heft 2 (1884): 87.

Lagopus lagopus (Linnaeus, 1758) Willow Ptarmigan / Moerassneeuwhoen

[Tetrao] Lagopus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae . . . . 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 159 – type loc. Europæ [Europe].

Lagopus lagopus Henry Seebohm. A History of British Birds, with Coloured Illustrations of Their Eggs. London: R. H. Porter, 1884, 2:423.

L. l. scotica (Latham, 1787) Red Grouse / Schots Sneeuwhoen

[Tetrao] Scoticus [John Latham]. Supplement to the General Synopsis of Birds. London: Leigh and Sotheby, 1787, 290.

Lagopus scoticus [W. E. Leach]. Systematic Catalogue of the Specimens of the Indigenous Mammalia and Birds That Are Present in the British Museum . . . . London: Richard and Arthur Taylor, 1816, 27. Republished as Leach’s Systematic Catalogue of the Specimens of the Indigenous Mammalia and Birds in the British Museum. Edited by Osbert Salvin. London: Willughby Society, 1882, 27.

Lagopus lagopus scoticus Ernst Hartert. “Birds Peculiar to the British Islands.” Ibis, 9th ser., 1, no. 4 (1907): 656. Announcement of “On Birds Represented in the British Isles by Peculiar Forms.” British Birds 1, no. 7 (1907): 222.

Lagopus lagopus scotica George Sangster, J. Martin Collinson, Andreas J. Helbig, Alan. G. Knox and David T. Parkin. “Taxonomic Recommendations for British birds: Second Report.” Ibis 146, no. 1 (2004): 153. Since Lagopus is feminine, gender change after Normand David and Michel Gosselin. “The Grammatical Gender of Avian Genera.” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 122, no. 4 (2002): 258.

L. l. lagopus (Latham, 1787)

Tetraogallus Gray, 1832

John Edward Gray. Illustrations of Indian Zoology, Chiefly Selected from the Collection of Major-General Hardwicke, FRS. London: Treuttel, Wurtz, Treuttel, Jun. and Richter, 1832, pt. 11, pl. 46. Collated and republished as Vol. 2. London: Adolphus Richter, 1834, pl. 46.

Tetraogallus caucasicus (Pallas, 1811) Caucasian Snowcock / Kaukasisch Berghoen

Tetrao caucasica Petro Pallas [Peter Pallas]. Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica . . . . Petropoli [Saint Petersburg]: In officina Caesareum Academiae scientiarum impress, 1811, 49. Republished in 1831, 76 – type loc. Caucasus.

Tetraogallus caucasicus A. Marchand. “Poussians des oiseaux d’Europe.” Revue et magasin de zoologie pure et appliquée, an. 14, 3rd ser., t. 5 (1877): 354, pl. 12.

Tetraogallus caspius (Gmelin, 1784) Caspian Snowcock / Kaspisch Berghoen

Tetrao caspius Samuel Gottlieb Gmelin. Reise von Astrachan nach Zarigyn . . . in den Jahren 1772 und 1773, bis im Frühling 1774. Theil 4 of Reise durch Russland zur Untersuchung der drey Natur-Reiche. St. Petersburg: Kayserlichen Academie der Wissenschaften, 1784, 67, pl. 10 – type loc. District von Astrabat [Estarabad Rural District], Persia [Iran].

Tetraogallus Caspius John Gould. The Birds of Asia. London: published by author, 1853, fasc. 5, pl. 26, text on following pages. Collated and republished in 1883, vol. 7, pl. 26, text on following pages.

Alectoris Kaup, 1829

Jakob Kaup. Skizzirte Entwickelungs-Geschichte und natürliches System der europäischen Thierwelt. Darmstadt/Leipzig: Carl Wilhelm Leske, 1829, 1:180, 193.

Alectoris graeca (Meisner, 1804) Rock Partridge / Steenpatrijs.

[Perdix] Graeca Friedrich Meisner Systematisches Verzeichniss der Vogel . . . . Bern: Hallerschen Buchhandlung, 1804, 41.

A[lectoris] graeca Ernst Hartert Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna: Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. Berlin: R. Friedländer and Sohn, 1921, Heft 16, Bd. 3, Heft 2, 1903. Collated and republished in 1922, Bd. 3, 1903 (tab.), 1905 (text).

A. g. graeca (Meisner, 1804)

A. g. whitakeri Schiebel, 1934 Sicilian Rock Partridge / Siciliaanse Steenpatrijs

Alectoris graeca whitakeri G. Schiebel. “Alectoris graeca whitakeri subsp. nova. Steinhuhn von Sizilien.” Falco 30, no. 1 (1934): 2.

Alectoris chukar (Gray, 1830) Chukar Partridge / Aziatische Steenpatrijs

Perdix Chukar John Edward Gray. Illustrations of Indian Zoology, Chiefly Selected from the Collection of Major-General Hardwicke, FRS. London: Treuttel, Wurtz, Treuttel, Jun. and Richter, 1830, pt. 2, pl. 54. Collated and republished as Vol. 1, 1832, pl. 54.

A[lectoris] chukar P. P. Sushkin. “Notes on Alectoris chukar, with Descriptions of Six New Subspecies.” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 48, no. 317 (1927): 22.

Alectoris philbyi Lowe, 1934 Philby’s Partridge / Philby’s Steenpatrijs

Alectoris græca philbyi P. R. Lowe. “Description of a New Form of the Red Legged Partridge (Alectoris græca philbyi) from Arabia.” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 55, no. 380 (1934): 8.

A[lectoris] philbyi George E. Watson. “Sympatry in Palearctic Alectoris Partridges.” Evolution 16, No. 1 (1962): 15.

Alectoris barbara (Bonnaterre, 1790) Barbary Partridge / Barbarijse Patrijs

Perdix Barbara [P. J.] Bonnaterre. Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature. Ornithologie. Paris: Panckoucke, 1790, livr. 38, pl. 94, fig. 2. (Collated and republished in Paris: Mme veuve Agasse, 1823, [pt. 4] (Planches), pl. 94, fig. 2.) Text: Paris: Panckoucke, [1792], livr. 51, 208. (Collated and republished in Paris: Mme veuve Agasse, 1823, pt. 1, 208).

A[lectoris] barbara Ernst Hartert. Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. R. Friedländer & Sohn, 1921, Heft 16 (Bd. 3, Heft 2), 1903 (table), 1910 (text). (Collated and republished in 1922, Bd. 3, 1903 (table), 1910 (text).)

A. b. barbara (Bonnaterre, 1790)

A. b. barbata (Reichenow, 1896)

C[accabis] barbata Ant. Reichenow. “Über ein merkwürdiges Steinhuhn.” Ornithologische Monatsberichte 4, no. 5 (1896): 76.

Alectoris barbara barbata Ernst Hartert. Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. R. Friedländer & Sohn, 1922, Heft 18–19 (Bd. 3, Heft 4–5), 2215. (Collated and republished in Bd. 3, 2215.)

Alectoris rufa (Linnaeus, 1758) Red-legged Partridge / Rode Patrijs

[Tetrao] rufus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae . . . . 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 160 – type loc. Europa australiori [Southern Europe].

A[lectoris] rufa Ernst Hartert. Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. R. Friedländer & Sohn, 1921, Heft 16 (Bd. 3, Heft 2), 1903 (table), 1912 (text). (Collated and republished in 1922, Bd. 3, 1903 (table), 1912 (text).)

Alectoris melanocephala (Rüppell, 1835) Arabian Partridge / Arabische Steenpatrijs

Perdix melanocephala Eduard Rüppell. Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Frankfurt am Main: Siegmund Schmerber, 1835, livr. 2 (Vögel), 11, fig. 5. (Collated and republished in Vögel. In Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Frankfurt am Main: Siegmund Schmerber, 1840, 11, fig. 5).

A[lectoris] melanocephala Ernst Hartert. Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. R. Friedländer & Sohn, 1921, Heft 16 (Bd. 3, Heft 2), 1903 (table), 1915 (text). (Collated and republished in 1922, Bd. 3, 1903 (table), 1915 (text).)

Ammoperdix Gould, 1851

Ammoperdix John Gould. The Birds of Asia. London: published by author, 1851, pt. 3, pl. 1, text on following page. (Collated and republished in vol. 7, pl. 1, text on following page.)

Ammoperdix griseogularis (Brandt, 1843) See-see Partridge / Perzische Woestijnpatrijs

Perdix griseogularis J.-F. Brandt [J. F. von Brandt]. “Notes sur une nouvelles espèces de Perdrix (Perdix griseogularis).” Bulletin de la Classe physico-mathématique de l’Académie impériale des sciences de St.-Péterbourg 1, no. 23 (1843), col. 365.

Ammoperdix griseogularis F. De Filippi. Note di un viaggio in Persia nel 1862. Milano [Milan]: G. Daelli, 1865, 1:351.

Ammoperdix heyi (Temminck, 1825) Sand Partridge / Arabische Woestijnpatrijs

Perdix Heyi C. J. Temminck. “Perdrix de Hey. Perdix Heyi. Temm.” In C. J. Temminck and Meiffren Laugier de Chartrouse [G.M.J. Meiffren]. Nouveau recueil de planches coloriées d’oiseaux, pour servir de suite et de complément aux planches enluminées de Buffon. Paris: F. G. Levrault, 1825, livr. 55, pl. 328, 329. (Collated and republished as Nouveau recueil de planches coloriées d’oiseaux, pour servir de suite et de complément aux planches enluminées de Buffon, édition in-folio et in-4⁰ de l’Imprimerie royale, 1770. Paris: F. G. Levrault, 1838, 5: pl. 328, 329, name on following page [101].)

Ammoperdix Heyi John Gould. The Birds of Asia. London: published by author, 1851, pt. 3, pl. 1, text on following page. (Collated and republished in The Birds of Asia. London: published by author, 1851, 7: pl. 2, text on following page.)

Francolinus Stephens, 1819

James Francis Stephens. “Francolinus. Francolin.” In Birds. Vol. 11, pt 2 of General Zoology; or, Systematic Natural History, by George Shaw. London: J. Walker; Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme and Brown; J. and A. Arch; E. Jeffery; Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy; R. Scholey; Sherwood, Neely and Jones; G. and W. B. Whittaker; J. Black and Son; W. Lowe; J. Booth; S. Bagster; J. Mawman; R. Fenner; Ogle; Rodwell; J. Robinson; and J. Harper, 1819, 316.

Francolinus francolinus (Linnaeus, 1766) Black Francolin / Zwarte Frankolijn

[Tetrao] Francolinus Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae . . . . 12th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1766, 1: 275.

Francolinus francolinus W. R. Ogilvie Grant [W. R. Ogilvie-Grant] “A Short Review of the Francolins Belonging to the Genera Francolinus and Pternistes.” Ibis, 6th ser., 4, no. 13 (1892): 38.

F. f. francolinus (Linnaeus, 1766)

F. f. arabistanicus Zarudny & Härms, 1913

Francolinus orientalis arabistanicus N. Sarudny [N. Zarudny] and M. Härms. “Neue Formen der Frankoline aus Persien.” Ornithologische Monatsberichte 21, no. 4 (1913): 54.

Francolinus francolinus arabistanicus Ernst Hartert. Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. R. Friedländer & Sohn, 1921, Heft 16 (Bd. 3, Heft 2), 1923. (Collated and republished in 1922, Bd. 3, 1923.)

F. f. bogdanovi Zarudny, 1906

Francolinus orientalis bogdanovi N. Sarudny [N. Zarudny]. “Francolinus orientalis bogdanovi subsp. nov.” Ornithologische Monatsberichte 14, no. 9 (1906): 151.

Francolinus francolinus bogdanovi Ernst Hartert. Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. R. Friedländer & Sohn, 1921, Heft 16 (Bd. 3, Heft 2), 1923. (Collated and republished in 1922, Bd. 3, 1922.)

Francolinus pondicerianus (Gmelin, 1789) Grey Francolin / Grijze Frankolijn

[Tetrao] pondicerianus Jo. Fridr. Gmelin. “[Tetrao] pondicerianus.” In Systema naturæ . . ., by Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. 13th edn., edited by Jo. Frid. Gmelin. Lugduni [Lyon]: J. B. Delamolliere, 1789, 1, pt 2, 760.

James Francis Stephens. “Pondicherry Francolin. Francolinus Pondicerianus.” In Birds. Vol. 11, pt 2 of General Zoology; or, Systematic Natural History, by George Shaw. London: J. Walker; Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme and Brown; J. and A. Arch; E. Jeffery; Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy; R. Scholey; Sherwood, Neely and Jones; G. and W. B. Whittaker; J. Black and Son; W. Lowe; J. Booth; S. Bagster; J. Mawman; R. Fenner; Ogle; Rodwell; J. Robinson; and J. Harper, 1819, 321.

Pternistis Wagler, 1832

[J. G.] Wagler. “Neue Sippen und Gattungen Säugthiere und Vögel.” Isis von Oken, Jg. 1832, Heft 11 (1832), col. 1229.

Pternistis erckelii (Rüppell, 1835) Erckel’s Spurfowl / Erckels Frankolijn

Perdix Erckelii Eduard Rüppell. Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Frankfurt am Main: Siegmund Schmerber, 1835, livr. 2 (Vögel), 12, fig. 6. (Collated and republished in Vögel. In Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Frankfurt am Main: Siegmund Schmerber, 1840, 12, fig. 6).

[Pternistis] erckelii Timothy M. Crowe, Eric H. Harley, Mariola B. Jakutowicz, Joris Komen and Anna A. Crowe. “Phylogenetic, Taxonomic and Biogeographical Implications of Genetic, Morphological, and Behavioral Variation in Francolins (Phasianidae: Francolinus).” Auk 109, no. 1 (1992): 37.

Pternistis bicalcaratus (Linnaeus, 1766) Double-spurred Spurfowl / Barbarijse Frankolijn

[Tetrao] bicalcaratus Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae . . . . 12th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1766, 1: 277.

[Pternistis] bicalcaratus Timothy M. Crowe, Eric H. Harley, Mariola B. Jakutowicz, Joris Komen and Anna A. Crowe. “Phylogenetic, Taxonomic and Biogeographical Implications of Genetic, Morphological, and Behavioral Variation in Francolins (Phasianidae: Francolinus).” Auk 109, no. 1 (1992): 37.

Perdix Brisson, 1760

M. J. Brisson. Ornithologia; sive Synopsis methodica sistens avium divisionem in ordines, sectiones, genera, species, ipsarumque varietates…/Ornithologie; ou, Méthode contenant la division des oiseaux en ordres, sections, genres, espéces & leurs variétés…. Paris: Cl. Jean-Baptiste Bauche, 1760, 1: 26 (table), 219 (text).

Perdix perdix (Linnaeus, 1758) Grey Partridge / Patrijs

[Tetrao] Perdix Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae . . . . 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 160.

Perdix perdix Ernst Hartert. Katalog der Vogelsammlung in Museum der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Frankfurt am Main. Frankfurt am Main: Gebrüder Knauer, 1891, 194.

Coturnix Garsault, 1764

[François Alexandre Pierre] de Garsault. Les figures des plantes et animaux d’usage en medecine, décrits dans la Matiere Medicale de Geoffroy Medecin. [Paris]: published by author, [1764], 5: pl. 686.

Coturnix coturnix (Linnaeus, 1758) Common Quail / Kwartel

[Tetrao] Coturnix Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae . . . . 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 161.

[Coturnix] coturnix [Hinrich] Lichtenstein. Nomenclator avium Musei zoologici berolinensis [Namenverzeichniss der in der zoologischen Sammlung der Königlichen Universität zu Berlin aufgestellten Arten von Vögeln . . . ]. Berlin: [Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften], 1854, 84.

Coturnix delegorguei Delegorgue, 1847 Harlequin Quail / Harlekijnkwartel

Coturnix Delegorguei Adulphe Delegorgue. Voyage dans L’Afrique australe . . . . With an introduction by Albert Montémont. Paris: A. René, [1847], 2:615.

Syrmaticus Wagler, 1832

[J. G.] Wagler. “Neue Sippen und Gattungen Säugthiere und Vögel.” Isis von Oken, Jg. 1832, Heft 11 (1832), col. 1229.

Syrmaticus reevesii (Gray, 1829) Reeves’s Pheasant / Koningsfazant

Phasianus Reevesii John Edward Gray. “Reeves’ Pheasant, Phasianus Reevesii. Gray.” In Aves, Part 8, by Edward Griffith. Pt. 20 of The Animal Kingdom Described and Arranged in Conformity with Its Organization, by the Baron Cuvier, . . . with Additional Descriptions . . . , by Edward Griffith and Others. [Translated by Edward Pidgeon?] London: Whittaker, Treacher, [1829], 25. (Collated and republished in Vol. 3 of The Class of Aves Arranged by the Baron Cuvier, with Specific Descriptions, by Edward Griffith and Edward Pidgeon. Vol. 8 of The Animal Kingdom Arranged in Conformity with Its Organization, by the Baron Cuvier . . . with Additional Descriptions . . . , by Edward Griffith and Others. London: Whittaker, Treacher, 1829 [1830], 25.)

Syrmaticus reevesii [J. G.] Wagler. “Neue Sippen und Gattungen Säugthiere und Vögel.” Isis von Oken, Jg. 1832, Heft 11 (1832), col. 1229.

Phasianus Linnaeus, 1758

Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae . . . . 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 158.

Phasianus colchicus Linnaeus, 1758 Common Pheasant

[Phasianus] colchicus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae . . . . 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 158.

Chrysolophus Gray, 1834

John Edward Gray. Illustrations of Indian Zoology, Chiefly Selected from the Collection of Major-General Hardwicke, FRS. London: Adolphus Richter, 1834, pt. 15 + 16, pl. 41, fig. 2. (Collated and republished as Vol. 2. London: Adolphus Richter, 1834, pl. 41, fig. 2.)

Chrysolophus pictus (Linnaeus, 1758) Golden Pheasant

[Phasianus] pictus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae . . . . 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 158.

Chrysolophus pictus John Edward Gray. Illustrations of Indian Zoology, Chiefly Selected from the Collection of Major-General Hardwicke, FRS. London: Adolphus Richter, 1834, pt. 15 + 16, pl. 41, fig. 2. (Collated and republished as Vol. 2. London: Adolphus Richter, 1834, pl. 41, fig. 2.)

Chrysolophus amherstiae (Leadbeater, 1829) Lady Amherst’s Pheasant

Phasianus Amherstiæ Benjamin Leadbeater. “On an Undescribed Species of the Genus Phasianus.” Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 16, pt. 1 (1829): 129, pl. 15.

Chrysolophus Amherstiæ G. R. Gray. Gallinæ. Pt. 5 of List of the Specimens of Birds in the Collection of the British Museum. London: Trustees [of the British Museum], 1867, 30.

Pavo Linnaeus, 1758

Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae . . . . 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 156.

Pavo cristatus Linnaeus, 1758 Indian Peafowl

[Pavo] cristatus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae . . . . 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 156.

CAPRIMULGIDAE Vigors, 1825

Caprimulgi Nicholas Aylward Vigors. “Observations on the Natural Affinities That Connect the Orders and Families of Birds.” Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 14, pt. 3 (1825): 413.

Caprimulgidae James Francis Stephens. Aves / Birds. Vol. 13, Pt. 2 of General zoology, or Systematic Natural History, by George Shaw. London: J. and A. Arch; Longman, Rees; E. Jeffery and Son; J. Mawman; Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy; J. Booth; Sherwood; G. B. Whittaker; R. Scholey; S. Bagster; Rodwell and Martin; Saunders and Hodgson; Hamilton, Adams; Simpkin and Marshall; J. Duncan; T. and J. Allman; W. J. and J. Maynard; and Wightman and Cramp, 1826, 83.