Birds of the Western Palearctic

. . . being a bibliography of bird species of the western Palearctic region, comprising the protonyms and currently valid scientific names referenced comprehensively, including some synonyms.

The list combines the species listed by the Dutch Birding Bird Names document (Commissie Systematiek Nederlandse Avifauna, 2022) with taxonomic systematics of IOC World Bird List (edited by Gill et al., 2022).

. . . a work in progress.

Any errors and solecisms are entirely my own.


Part 1: Struthionidae, Anatidae, Numididae, Odontophoridae, Phasianidae


STRUTHIONIDAE Vigors, 1825

Strutionidæ Nicholas Aylward Vigors. “Observations on the Natural Affinities That Connect the Orders and Families of Birds.” Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 14, pt. 3 (1825): 395–517, 413.

Struthio Linnaeus, 1758

Struthio Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th ed. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:155.

Struthio camelus Linnaeus, 1758 Common Ostrich

[Struthio] Camelus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th ed. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:155.

ANATIDAE Leach, 1820

Anatidæ W. E. Leach. Synopsis of the Contents of the British Museum. 17th ed. London: Richard and Arthur Taylor, 1820:68*.

Dendrocygna Swainson, 1837

Dendrocygna William Swainson. On the Natural History and Classification of Birds. The Cabinet Cyclopædia, vol. 92, edited by Dionysius Lardner. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, and John Taylor, 1837, 2:365.

Dendrocygna bicolor (Vieillot, 1816) Fulvous Whistling Duck

Anas bicolor Louis Pierre Vieillot. “Le Canard roux et noir, Anas bicolor, Vieill.” In Nouveau dictionnaire d’histoire naturelle, appliquée aux arts, à l’agriculture, à l’économie rurale et domestique, à la médecine, etc., edited by Société de naturalistes et d’agriculteurs. Paris: Deterville, 1816, 5:136.

Dendrocygna bicolor J. A. Allen, Charles W. Richmond, William Brewster, Jonathan Dwight Jr. [Jonathan Dwight V], C. Hart Merriam, Robert Ridgway and Witmer Stone. “Fourteenth Supplement to the American Ornithologists’ Union Check-list of North American Birds.” Auk 25, no. 3 (1908): 343–399, 362.

Dendrocygna javanica (Horsfield, 1821) Lesser Whistling Duck

Anas Javanica Thomas Horsfield. “Systematic Arrangement and Description of Birds from the Island of Java.” Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 13, pt. 1 (1821): 133–200, 199.

D[endrocygna] javanica T. C. Jerdon. The Birds of India: Being a Natural History of All the Birds Known to Inhabit Continental India, with Descriptions of the Species, Genera, Families, Tribes, and Orders, and a Brief Notice of Such Families As Are Not Found in India, Making It a Manual of Ornithology Specially Adapted for India. Calcutta: George Wyman, 1864, 3:789.

Branta Scopoli, 1769

Branta Ioannis Antonii Scopoli [Giovanni Antonio Scopoli]. Annus I historico-naturalis. Descriptiones avium musei proprii earumque rariorum, quas vidit in vivario augustiis imperatoris, et in museo excell. comitis Francisci Annib. Turriani. Lipsiæ [Leipzig]: Christ. Gottlob Hilscheri, 1769:67.

Branta bernicla (Linnaeus, 1758) Brant Goose

[Anas] Bernicla Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:124.

[Branta] bernicla H. M. Bannister. “A Sketch of the Classification of American Anserinæ.” Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia [22], Nov. 1870:130–132, 131.

B. b. nigricans (Lawrence, 1846)

Anser nigricans George N. Lawrence. “Description of a New Species of Anser.” Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York 4, no. 6–7 (1846): 171–172, 171, pl. 12.

[Branta bernicla] var. nigricans Elliott Coues. Key to North American Birds: Containing a Concise Account of Every Species of Living and Fossil Bird at Present Known from the Continent North of the Mexican and United States Boundary. Salem, MA: Naturalists’ Agency, 1872:284, fig. 184b.

B. b. bernicla (Linnaeus, 1758)

B. b. hrota (Müller, 1776)

Anas Hrota Othone Friderico Müller [Otto Friedrich Müller]. Zoologiae Danicae prodromus; seu, Animalium daniae et norvegiae indigenarum characteres, nomina, et synonyma imprimis popularium. Hafniæ [Copenhagen]: Typis Hallageriis, 1776:14.

Branta bernicla hrota James Lee Peters. Check-list of Birds of the World. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1931, 1:149.

Branta ruficollis (Pallas, 1769) Red-breasted Goose

Anser ruficollis P. S. Pallas. Spicilegia zoologica, quibus novae imprimis et obscurae animalium species iconibus, descriptionibus atque commentariis illustrantur. Berolini [Berlin]: Gottl. August. Lange, 1769, fasc. 6, 21, pl. 4. (Collated and republished in P. S. Pallas. Spicilegia zoologica. Berolini [Berlin]: Gottl. August. Lange, 1774, 1: fasc. 6, 21, pl. 4.)

Branta ruficollis Tommaso Salvadori. “Elenco degli uccelli italiani.” Annali del Museo civico di storia naturale di Genova 23, 2nd ser., 3 (1886): 5–302, 254.

Branta canadensis (Linnaeus, 1758) Canada Goose

[Anas] canadensis Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:123.

Branta canadensis H. M. Bannister. “A Sketch of the Classification of American Anserinæ.” Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia [22], Nov. 1870:130–132, 131.

B. c. parvipes (Cassin, 1852)

Anser parvipes John Cassin. “Descriptions of New Species of Birds, Specimens of Which Are in the Collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.” Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 6, no. 5 (1862): 184–188, 187.

[Branta canadensis] parvipes John. W. Aldrich. “Speciation in the White-cheeked Geese.” Wilson Bulletin 58, no. 1 (1946): 94–103, 96.

B. c. interior Todd, 1938

Branta canadensis interior W. E. Clyde Todd. “A New Eastern Race of the Canada Goose.” Auk 55, no. 4 (1938): 661–662, 662.

B. c. canadensis (Linnaeus, 1758)

Branta leucopsis (Bechstein, 1803) Barnacle Goose

Anas leucopsis Johann Matthäus Bechstein. Ornithologisches Taschenbuch von und für Deutschland; oder, Kurze Beschreibung aller Vögel Deutschlands für Liebhaber dieses Theils der Naturgeschichte. Leipzig: Carl Friedrich Enoch Richter, 1803, pt. 2:424.

[Branta] canadensis H. M. Bannister. “A Sketch of the Classification of American Anserinæ.” Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia [22], Nov. 1870:130–132, 131.

Branta hutchinsii (Richardson, 1832) Cackling Goose

Anser Hutchinsii John Richardson. “Anser Hutchinsii (Richards.) Hutchin’s Barnacle Goose.” In Fauna boreali-americana; or, The Zoology of the Northern Parts of British America: Containing Descriptions of the Objects of Natural History Collected on the Late Northern Land Expeditions under Command of Captain Sir John Franklin, R.N. Pt. 2, The Birds, by William Swainson and John Richardson. London: John Murray, “1831” [1832]: 470.

[Branta] hutchinsii H. M. Bannister. “A Sketch of the Classification of American Anserinæ.” Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia [22], Nov. 1870:130–132, 131.

B. h. minima Ridgway, 1885

Branta minima Robert Ridgway. “Note on the Anser leucopareius of Brandt.” Proceedings of the United States National Museum 8, no. 475, no. 2 (1885): 21–22, 22.

Branta hutchinsii minima John. W. Aldrich. “Speciation in the White-cheeked Geese.” Wilson Bulletin 58, no. 1 (1946): 94–103, 95.

B. h. taverneri Delacour, 1951

Branta hutchinsii taverni Jean Delacour. “Preliminary Note on the Taxonomy of Canada Geese, Branta canadensis.” American Museum Novitates, no. 1537 (1951): 1–10, 7.

B. h. hutchinsii (Richardson, 1832)

Anser Brisson, 1760

Anser M. J. Brisson. Ornithologie; ou, Méthode contenant la division des oiseaux en ordres, sections, genres, especes & leurs variétés. A laquelle on a joint une description exacte de chaque espece, avec les citations des auteurs qui en ont traité, les noms quils leur ont donnés, ceux que leur ont donnés les différentes nations, & les noms vulgaires = Ornithologia; sive, Synopsis methodica sistens avium divisionem in ordines, sectiones, genera, species, ipsarumque varietates. Cum accurata cujusque speciei descriptione, citacionibus auctorum de iis tractantium, nominibus eis ab ipsis & nationibus impositis, nominibusque vulgaribus. Paris: Cl. Jean-Baptiste Bauche, 1760, 1:58; 6:261.

Anser indicus (Latham, 1790) Bar-headed Goose

[Anas] indica Joannis Latham [John Latham]. Index ornithologicus; sive, Systema ornithologiæ, complectens avium divisionem in classes, ordines, genera, species, ipsarumque varietates, adjectis synonymis, locis, descriptionibus, &c. Londini [London]: published by author, 1790, 2:839.

Anser Indica James Francis Stephens. General Zoology; or, Systematic Natural History, Commenced by the Late George Shaw M.D. F.R.S. Vol. 12, pt. 2, Birds. London: J. and A. Arch; Longman, Hurst; E. Jeffery and Son; J. Mawman; Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy; J. Booth; Sherwood; G. B. Whittaker; R. Scholey; S. Bagster; Rodwell and Martin; R. Saunders; Hamilton, Adams; Simpkin and Marshall; J. Duncan; T. and J. Allman; C. Smith; G. Wightman, 1824:36.

[Anser] indicus [Hinrich Lichtenstein]. Nomenclator avium Musei zoologici berolinensis = Namenverzeichniss der in der zoologischen Sammlung der Königlichen Universität zu Berlin aufgestellten Arten von Vögeln nach den in der neueren Systematik am meisten zur Geltung gekommenen Namen der Gattungen und ihrer Unterabtheilungen. Berlin: Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1854:101.

Anser rossii Cassin, 1861 Ross’s Goose

Anser Rossii J. Cassin. “Communication in Reference to a New Species of Goose from Arctic America.” Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 13, [no. 1?] (1861): 72–73, 73.

Anser caerulescens (Linnaeus, 1758) Snow Goose

[Anas] cærulescens Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:124.

A[nser] Cærulescens [P. J.] Bonnaterre. Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature. Ornithologie. Paris: Panckoucke, 1790, livr. 37: pl. 32, fig. 1; 1791, livr. 47:115 (text). (Collated and republished in [P. J.] Bonnaterre and L. P. Vieillot. Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature. Ornithologie. Paris: Mme. veuve Agasse, 1823, pt. 1:115; [pt. 4] Planches: pl. 32, fig. 1.)

Anser anser (Linnaeus, 1758) Greylag Goose

[Anas] Anser Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:123.

Anas [(Anser)] anser R. P. Lesson. Traité d’ornithologie; ou, Tableau méthodique des ordres, sous-ordres, familles, tribus, genres, sous-genres et races d’oiseaux. Ouvrage entièrement neuf, formant le catalogue le plus complet des espèces réunies dans les collections publiques de la France. Paris: F. G. Levrault, 1831, livr. 8:628. (Collated and republished in Traité d’ornithologie; ou, Tableau méthodique des ordres, sous-ordres, familles, tribus, genres, sous-genres et races d’oiseaux. Ouvrage entièrement neuf, formant le catalogue le plus complet des espèces réunies dans les collections publiques de la France. Paris: F. G. Levrault, 1831, 1:628.)

Anser anser Ernst Hartert. Katalog der Vogelsammlung in Museum der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Frankfurt am Main. Frankfurt am Main: Gebrüder Knauer, 1891:226.

Anser fabalis (Latham, 1787) Taiga Bean Goose

[Anas] Fabalis John Latham. Supplement to the General Synopsis of Birds. London: Leigh and Sotheby, 1787:297 (name).

Anser fabalis T. Salvadori. Catalogue of the Chenomorphæ (Palamedeæ, Phœnicopteri, Anseres), Crypturi, and Ratitæ in the Collection of the British Museum. Catalogue of the Birds of the British Museum, vol. 27. London: Trustees [of the British Museum (Natural History)], 1895:99.

A. f. fabalis (Latham, 1787)

A. f. middendorffii Severtsov, 1873

Anser Middendorffii N. A. Severtsov. “Вертикальное и горизонтальное распределение Туркестанских животных” [Vertical and horizontal distribution of Turkestan fauna]. Известия Императорском общества любителей естествознания, антропологии и этнографии [News of the Imperial Society of Devotees of Natural History, Anthropology and Ethnography] 8, no. 2 (1873): 70 (table), 149 (text).

Anser middendorffi H. E. Dresser. “Notes on Severtzoff’s ‘Fauna of Turkestan’ (Turkestanskie Jevotnie) [Part 6].” Translated by H. E. Dresser and Carl Craemers. Ibis, 3rd ser., vol. 6, no. 24 (1876): 410–421, 416. (Translation of Severtsov 1873. Name misspelt consistently, most likely due to translator’s error.)

Anser Middendorfi N. A. Severtsov” rel=”noopener” target=”_blank”>N. A. Severtsoff [N. A. Severtsov]. “Faune des vertébrés du Turkestan.” Translated by Léon Olphe Galliard. Zeitschrift für die gesammte Ornithologie 4, nos. 1–2 (1887): 1–141, 140. (Translation of Severtsov 1873. Name misspelt, most likely due to translator’s error.)

Ans[er] Middendorfii N. A. Severtsov” rel=”noopener” target=”_blank”>N. A. Severtsoff [N. A. Severtsov]. “Faune des vertébrés du Turkestan.” Translated by Léon Olphe Galliard. Zeitschrift für die gesammte Ornithologie 4, nos. 1–2 (1887): 1–141, 140. (Translation of Severtsov 1873. Name misspelt, most likely due to translator’s error.)

Anser fabalis middendorffii Paul A. Johnsgard. “Order Anseriformes.” In Check-list of Birds of the World, edited by Ernst Mayr and G. William Cottrell. 2nd ed. Cambridge, MA: Museum of Comparative Zoology, 1979, 1:436.

Anser brachyrhynchus Baillon, 1834 Pink-footed Goose

[Anser] Brachyrhynchus L. A. F. Baillon. “Catalogue des Mammiferes, Oiseaux, Reptiles, Poissons et Mollusques testacés marins, observés dans l’arrondissementd’Abbeville.” Mémoires de la Société royale d’émulation d’Abbeville, 2nd ser., 1 (“1833” [1834]): 49–80, 74.

Anser serrirostris Gould, 1852 Tundra Bean Goose

Anser serrirostris John Gould. “On a New Species of Goose from China, Collected by the Late Lieut. Ince at Shanghai.” Literary Gazette and Journal of the Belles Lettres, Science and Art, no. 1836 (1852): 306.

Anser albifrons (Scopoli, 1769) Greater White-fronted Goose

Branta albifrons Ioannis Antonii Scopoli [Giovanni Antonio Scopoli]. Annus I historico-naturalis. Descriptiones avium musei proprii earumque rariorum, quas vidit in vivario augustiis imperatoris, et in museo excell. comitis Francisci Annib. Turriani. Lipsiæ [Leipzig]: Christ. Gottlob Hilscheri, 1769:69.

Anser albifrons Johann Matthäus Bechstein. Gemeinnützige Naturgeschichte Deutschlands nach allen drey Reichen. Ein Handbuch zur deutlichern und vollständigern Selbstbelehrung besonders für Forstmänner, Jugendlehrer und Oekonomen. 2nd ed. Leipzig: Fr. Chr. Wilh. Vogel, 1809, Bd. 4, Abt. 2:898, pl. 36 fig 2.

A. a. flavirostris Dalgety & Scott, 1948

Anser albifrons flavirostris C. T. Dalgety and Peter Scott. “A New Race of the Whitefronted Goose.” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 68, no. 6 (1948): 109–121, 115.

A. a. albifrons (Scopoli, 1769)

Anser erythropus (Linnaeus, 1758) Lesser White-fronted Goose

[Anas] erythropus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:123.

Anser erythropus Alfred Newton. “Remarks on the Anas (Anser) erythropus of Linnæus.” Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pt. 28, no. 438 (1860): 339–341, 341.

Cygnus Garsault, 1764

Cygnus [François Alexandre Pierre] de Garsault. Les figures des plantes et animaux d’usage en medecine, décrits dans la Matiere Medicale de Geoffroy Medecin. Paris: published by author, [1764], pl. 688.

Cygnus atratus (Latham, 1790) Black Swan

[Anas] atrata Joannis Latham [John Latham]. Index ornithologicus; sive, Systema ornithologiæ, complectens avium divisionem in classes, ordines, genera, species, ipsarumque varietates, adjectis synonymis, locis, descriptionibus, &c. Londini [London]: published by author, 1790:2:834.

Cygnus atratus James Francis Stephens. General Zoology; or, Systematic Natural History, Commenced by the Late George Shaw M.D. F.R.S. Vol. 12, pt. 2, Birds. London: J. and A. Arch; Longman, Hurst; E. Jeffery and Son; J. Mawman; Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy; J. Booth; Sherwood; G. B. Whittaker; R. Scholey; S. Bagster; Rodwell and Martin; R. Saunders; Hamilton, Adams; Simpkin and Marshall; J. Duncan; T. and J. Allman; C. Smith; G. Wightman, 1824:18.

Cygnus olor (Gmelin, 1789) Mute Swan

[Anas] Olor Jo. Fridr. Gmelin. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species: cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, by Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. 13th edn., edited by Jo. Frid. Gmelin. Lugduni [Lyon]: J. B. Delamolliere, 1789, 1, pt. 2:502.

Cygnus olor A. Risso. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes Maritimes. Paris: F.-G. Levrault, 1826, 3:81.

Cygnus columbianus (Ord, 1815) Whistling Swan

Anas Columbianus George Ord. “Zoology of North America.” In A New Geographical, Historical, and Commercial Grammar, and Present State of the Several Kingdoms of the World, by William Guthrie. 2nd rev. ed. Philadelphia: Johnson and Warner, 1815, 2:315–361, 319.

Cygnus (Olor) columbianus Elliott Coues (ed.). History of the Expedition under the Command of Lewis and Clark, to the Sources of the Missouri River, Thence across the Rocky Mountains and down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean, Performed during the Years 1804–5–6, by Order of the Government of the United States. New York: F. P. Harper, 1893, 3:885, 885n89.

C. c. columbianus (Ord, 1815)

C. c. bewickii Yarrell, 1830

Cygnus Bewickii William Yarrell. “Cygnus Bewickii.” In “Proceedings of Learned Societies. Linnæan Society,” by Richard Taylor and Richard Phillips. Philosophical Magazine, n.s., 7, no. 38 (1830): 146.

Cygnus columbianus bewickii J. Delacour. “The Swans.” Avicultural Magazine 54, no. 6 (1948): 180–185, 182.

Cygnus cygnus (Linnaeus, 1758) Whooper Swan

[Anas] Cygnus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:122.

Cygnus (Olor) cygnus George Robert Gray. Hand-list of Genera and Species of Birds, Distinguishing Those Contained in the British Museum. Pt. 3, Struthiones, Grallæ, and Anseres, with Indices of Generic and Specific Names. London: Trustees [of the British Museum], 1871:78

Plectropterus Stephens, 1824

Plectropterus James Francis Stephens General Zoology; or, Systematic Natural History, Commenced by the Late George Shaw M.D. F.R.S. Vol. 12, pt. 2, Birds. London: J. and A. Arch; Longman, Hurst; E. Jeffery and Son; J. Mawman; Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy; J. Booth; Sherwood; G. B. Whittaker; R. Scholey; S. Bagster; Rodwell and Martin; R. Saunders; Hamilton, Adams; Simpkin and Marshall; J. Duncan; T. and J. Allman; C. Smith; G. Wightman, 1824:6.

Plectropterus gambensis (Linnaeus, 1766) Spur-winged Goose

[Anas] gambensis Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 12th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1766, 1:195.

Plectropterus gambensis J. F. Stephens General Zoology; or, Systematic Natural History, Commenced by the Late George Shaw M.D. F.R.S. Vol. 12, pt. 2, Birds. London: J. and A. Arch; Longman, Hurst; E. Jeffery and Son; J. Mawman; Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy; J. Booth; Sherwood; G. B. Whittaker; R. Scholey; S. Bagster; Rodwell and Martin; R. Saunders; Hamilton, Adams; Simpkin and Marshall; J. Duncan; T. and J. Allman; C. Smith; G. Wightman, 1824:7.

Sarkidiornis Eyton, 1838

Sarkidiornis T. C. Eyton. A Monograph on the Anatidae, or Duck Tribe. London: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman; Shrewsbury: Eddowes, 1838:20.

Sarkidiornis melanotos (Pennant, 1769) Knob-billed Duck

Anser melanotos Thomas Pennant. Indian Zoology. London: [published by author?], 1769:12, pl. 11.

Sarkidiornis melanotus G. Hartlaub. Review of Systematische Uebersicht der Vögel Nord-Ost-Afrika’s nebst Abbildung und Beschreibung von 50 Theils unbekannten, Theils noch nicht bildlich dargestellten Arten, by E. Rüppell. Isis von Oken, Jg. 1846, Heft 7 (1846): cols. 483–489, col. 489.

S[arcidiornis] melanotus Edward Blyth. Catalogue of the Birds in the Museum Asiatic Society. Calcutta: [Asiatic] Society, “1849” [1852]: 302.

Sarkidiornis melanotos A. E. Brehm “Blätter aus meinem ornithologischen Tagebuche [Part 6].” Journal für Ornithologie, 5, Heft 5, no. 29 (1857): 377–384, 377.

Alopochen Stejneger, 1885

Alopochen Leonhard Stejneger. Natural History of Birds. Vol. 4 of The Standard Natural History, edited by J. S. Kingsley. Boston: S. E. Cassino, 1885:141.

Alopochen aegyptiaca (Linnaeus, 1766) Egyptian Goose

[Anas] ægyptiaca Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 12th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1766, 1:197.

Alopochen aegyptiacaLeonhard Stejneger. Natural History of Birds. Vol. 4 of The Standard Natural History, edited by J. S. Kingsley. Boston: S. E. Cassino, 1885:141.

Tadorna Boie, 1822

Tadorna F. Boie. Tagebuch gehalten auf einer Reise durch Norwegen im Jahre 1817, edited by H. Boie. Schleswig: Königliches Taubstummen Institut, 1822:140 (narr.), 351 (syn.).

Tadorna tadorna (Linnaeus, 1758) Common Shelduck

[Anas] Tadorna Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:122.

Tadorna tadorna H. Schlegel. Kritische Übersicht der europäischen Vögel = Revue critique des oiseaux d’Europe. Leiden: A. Arnz, 1844:115.

Tadorna ferruginea (Pallas, 1764) Ruddy Shelduck

[Anas] ferruginea P.S. Pallas. “Adumbratiunculae avium variarum præcedenti elencho insertarum, sed quae in Systemate naturæ illustr. Linnæi nondum extant.” [Sketches of various birds inserted in the previous list, absent from the Systema naturae of Linneaus.] In Beredeneerde catalogus, van eene, bij uitstek fraayeen weergalooze verzameling, zoo van inlandsche als uitheemsche vogelen, viervoetige en gekorvene dieren. Zynde alle op het konstigste in derzelver natuurlykster standen, aart en houding, opgevult, opgezet, en, op eene byzondere wyze, voor alle bederf beveiligt, by A. Vroeg. ‘s Gravenhage: Pieter van Os, 1764:5.

Tadorna ferruginea S. A. Buturlin. “Bemerkungen über die geographische Verbreitung der Vögel im nordöstlichen Sibirien.” Translated by O. Haase. Journal für Ornithologie 56, no. 2 (1908): 282–294, 285.

Aix Boie, 1828

Aix F. Boie. “Bemerkungen über mehrere neue Vogelgattungen.” Isis von Oken 21, Heft 3 (1828): cols. 312–329, col. 329.

Aix sponsa (Linnaeus, 1758) Wood Duck

[Anas] Sponsa Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:128.

Aix sponsa Charles Lucian Bonaparte [Charles Lucien Bonaparte]. A Geographical and Comparative List of the Birds of Europe and North America. London: John Van Voorst, 1838:57.

Aix galericulata (Linnaeus, 1758) Mandarin Duck

[Anas] galericulata Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:128.

Aix galericulata Carlo L. Bonaparte [Charles L. Bonaparte]. “Introduzioneaala class ii. uccelli.” In Iconografia della fauna italica per le quattro classi degli animali vertebrati. Vol. 1, Mammiferi e uccelli. Roma [Rome]: Tipografia Salviucci, 1841: [9]

Nettapus Brandt, 1836

Nettapus Joanne Friderico Brandt [Johann Friedrich von Brandt]. Aves. Fasc. 1 of Descriptiones et icones animalium rossicorum novorum vel minus rite cognitorum. Petropoli [Saint Petersburg]: Academiae scientiarum, 1836:5.

Nettapus coromandelianus (Gmelin, 1789) Cotton Pygmy Goose

Anas coromandeliana Jo. Fridr. Gmelin. “[Anas] coromandelianus.” In Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, by Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. 13th edn., edited by Jo. Frid. Gmelin. Lugduni [Lyon]: J. B. Delamolliere, 1789, 1, pt. 2:522.

Nettapus Coromandelianus [John Edward Gray]. List of the Specimen of Birds in the Collection of the British Museum. Pt. 2, sect. 2, Gallinæ, Grallæ, and Anseres. London: Trustees [of the British Museum], 1844:129.

Sibirionetta Boetticher, 1929

Sibirionetta Hans von Boetticher. “Kritische Betrachtungen über Anatiden.” Anzeiger der ornithologischen Gesellschaft Bayerns, Bd. 2, no. 1 (1929): 10–15, 14 (text), 15 (descr.).

Sibirionetta formosa (Georgi, 1775) Baikal Teal

Anas formosa Joh. Gottl. Georgi. Bemerkungen einer Reise im Russischen Reich im Jahre 1772. Vol. 1 of Bemerkungen einer Reise im Russischen Reich in den Jahren 1772, 1773 und 1774. St. Peterburg: Kayserliche Academie der Wissenschaften, 1775:168.

Sibirionetta formosa Edward C. Dickinson and J. V. Remsen Jr. “Sibirionetta formosa“. In The Howard and Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World. Vol. 1, Non–passerines. 4th Edition. Eastbourne: Aves Press, 2013: ??. Republished online. Accessed 5 May 2021. <https://www.aviansystematics.org/4th-edition-checklist?viewfamilies=14>.

Spatula Boie, 1822

Spatula F. Boie. “Ueber Classification, insonderheit der europäischen Vögel.” Isis von Oken, Jg. 1822, Heft 5 (1822): cols. 545–564, 564.

Spatula querquedula (Linnaeus, 1758) Garganey

[Anas] Querquedula Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:126.

Spatula querquedula Edward C. Dickinson and J. V. Remsen Jr. “Spatula querquedula“. In The Howard and Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World. Vol. 1, Non–passerines. 4th Edition. Eastbourne: Aves Press, 2013: ??. Republished online. Accessed 5 May 2021. <https://www.aviansystematics.org/4th-edition-checklist?viewfamilies=14>.

Spatula cyanoptera (Vieillot, 1816) Cinnamon Teal

Anas cyanoptera Louis Pierre Vieillot. “Le Canard aux ailes bleues, Anas cyanoptera, Vieill.” In Nouveau dictionnaire d’histoire naturelle, appliquée aux arts, à l’agriculture, à l’économie rurale et domestique, à la médecine, etc., edited by Société de naturalistes et d’agriculteurs. Paris: Deterville, 1816, 5:104.

Spatula cyanoptera J. Dewey Soper. “Gleanings from the Canadian West – Part 1: Avian Fauna of Islay, Alberta.” Canadian Field-naturalist 35, no. 3 (1921): 50–54, 51. [“Shoveller Duck (Spatula cyanoptera)”, error?]

Spatula cyanoptera Edward C. Dickinson and J. V. Remsen Jr. “Spatula cyanoptera“. In The Howard and Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World. Vol. 1, Non–passerines. 4th Edition. Eastbourne: Aves Press, 2013: ??. Republished online. Accessed 5 May 2021. <https://www.aviansystematics.org/4th-edition-checklist?viewfamilies=14>.

Spatula discors (Linnaeus, 1766) Blue-winged Teal

[Anas] discors Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 12th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1766, 1:205.

Spatula discors Edward C. Dickinson and J. V. Remsen Jr. “Spatula discors“. In The Howard and Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World. Vol. 1, Non–passerines. 4th Edition. Eastbourne: Aves Press, 2013: ??. Republished online. Accessed 5 May 2021. <https://www.aviansystematics.org/4th-edition-checklist?viewfamilies=14>.

Spatula clypeata (Linnaeus, 1758) Northern Shoveler

[Anas] clypeata Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:124.

Spatula clypeata F. Boie “Ueber Classification, insonderheit der europäischen Vögel.” Isis von Oken, Heft 5 (1822): cols. 545–564, col. 564.

Mareca Stephens, 1824

Mareca J. F. Stephens General Zoology; or, Systematic Natural History, Commenced by the Late George Shaw M.D. F.R.S. Vol. 12, pt. 2, Birds. London: J. and A. Arch; Longman, Hurst; E. Jeffery and Son; J. Mawman; Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy; J. Booth; Sherwood; G. B. Whittaker; R. Scholey; S. Bagster; Rodwell and Martin; R. Saunders; Hamilton, Adams; Simpkin and Marshall; J. Duncan; T. and J. Allman; C. Smith; G. Wightman, 1824:130.

Mareca strepera (Linnaeus, 1758) Gadwall

[Anas] strepera Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:125.

Mareca strepera Bradley C. Livezey. “A Phylogenetic Classification of Waterfowl (Aves: Anseriformes), Including Selected Fossil Species.” Annals of the Carnegie Museum 66, no. 4 (1997): 457–496, 477.

Mareca falcata (Georgi, 1775) Falcated Duck

Anas falcata Joh. Gottl. Georgi. Bemerkungen einer Reise im Russischen Reich im Jahre 1772. Vol. 1 of Bemerkungen einer Reise im Russischen Reich in den Jahren 1772, 1773 und 1774. St. Peterburg: Kayserliche Academie der Wissenschaften, 1775:167.

Mareca falcata John Cassin. “Birds.” In Narrative of the Expedition of an American Squadron to the China Seas and Japan, Performed in the Years 1852, 1853 and 1854, by M. C. Perry. U.S. Senate Ex. Document No. 79, 33rd Congress, 2nd Session (1856), 2:231.

Mareca penelope Eurasian Wigeon (Linnaeus, 1758)

[Anas] Penelope Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:126.

Mareca penelope Prideaux John Selby. Illustrations of British Ornithology. Vol. 2, Water Birds. Edinburgh: W. H. Lizars, 1833:324

Mareca americana American Wigeon (Gmelin, 1789)

[Anas] americana Jo. Fridr. Gmelin. “Anas americana.” In Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, by Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. 13th edn., edited by Jo. Frid. Gmelin. Lugduni [Lyon]: J. B. Delamolliere, 1789, 1, pt. 2:526.

Mareca Americana James Francis Stephens. General Zoology; or, Systematic Natural History, Commenced by the Late George Shaw M.D. F.R.S. Vol. 12, pt. 2, Birds. London: J. and A. Arch; Longman, Hurst; E. Jeffery and Son; J. Mawman; Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy; J. Booth; Sherwood; G. B. Whittaker; R. Scholey; S. Bagster; Rodwell and Martin; R. Saunders; Hamilton, Adams; Simpkin and Marshall; J. Duncan; T. and J. Allman; C. Smith; G. Wightman, 1824:135.

Anas Linnaeus, 1758

Anas Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:122.

Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus, 1758 Mallard

[Anas] platyrhynchos Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:125.

Anas rubripes Brewster, 1902 American Black Duck

Anas obscura rubripes William Brewster. “An Undescribed Form of the Black Duck (Anas obscura).” Auk 19, no. 2 (1902): 183–188, 184.

A[nas] rubripes Chester A. Reed. Bird Guide: Water Birds, Game Birds and Birds of Prey East of the Rockies. Toronto: Musson, 1906:79.

Anas capensis Gmelin, 1789 Cape Teal

[Anas] capensis Jo. Fridr. Gmelin. “Anas capensis.” In Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, by Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. 13th edn., edited by Jo. Frid. Gmelin. Lugduni [Lyon]: J. B. Delamolliere, 1789, 1, pt. 2:527.

Anas erythrorhyncha Gmelin, 1789 Red-billed Teal

[Anas] erythrorhyncha Jo. Fridr. Gmelin. “Anas erythrorhyncha.” In Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, by Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. 13th edn., edited by Jo. Frid. Gmelin. Lugduni [Lyon]: J. B. Delamolliere, 1789, 1, pt. 2:517.

Anas acuta Linnaeus, 1758 Northern Pintail

[Anas] acuta Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:126.

Anas crecca Linnaeus, 1758 Eurasian Teal

[Anas] Crecca Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:126.

Anas carolinensis Gmelin, 1789 Green-winged Teal

[Anas] carolinensis Jo. Fridr. Gmelin. “Anas georgica.” In Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, by Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. 13th edn., edited by Jo. Frid. Gmelin. Lugduni [Lyon]: J. B. Delamolliere, 1789, 1, pt. 2:533.

Marmaronetta Reichenbach, 1853

Marmaronetta L. Reichenbach. “Die Vögel. The Birds. Aves. Les oiseaux – Systema avium.” In Avium systema nature. Das natürliche System der Vögel. Mit hundert Tafeln größtenteils Original-Abbildungen der bis jetzt entdeckten fast zwölfhundert typischen Formen = Ornithologie méthodique; ou, Exposé des genres des oiseaux de toutes les parties du monde, réunissant les découvertes les plus récentes représentant a peu près mille et deux cent types charactérestiques. Dresden: Expedition der Vollständigsten Naturgeschichte, 1853:9. Die vollständigste Naturgeschichte der Schwimmvögel: Aves natatores. Oiseaux nageurs. Dresden: Expedition der volständigsten Naturgeschichte, 1848?: pl. 284, 51b, Novit. 21, fig. 2341–42 (insert?), pl. 335, 51c, Novit. 72, fig. 2652 (insert?).

Marmaronetta angustirostris (Ménétries, 1832) Marbled Duck

Anas angustirostris E. Ménétries. Catalogue raisonné des objets de zoologie. Recueillis dans un voyage au Caucase et jusqu’aux frontières actuelles de la Perse. St.-Pétersbourg [Saint Petersburg]: Académie impériale des sciences, 1832:58.

[Marmaronetta] angustirostris L. Reichenbach. “Die Vögel. The Birds. Aves. Les oiseaux – Systema avium.” In Avium systema nature. Das natürliche System der Vögel. Mit hundert Tafeln größtenteils Original-Abbildungen der bis jetzt entdeckten fast zwölfhundert typischen Formen = Ornithologie méthodique; ou, Exposé des genres des oiseaux de toutes les parties du monde, réunissant les découvertes les plus récentes représentant a peu près mille et deux cent types charactérestiques. Dresden: Expedition der Vollständigsten Naturgeschichte, 1853:9. Die vollständigste Naturgeschichte der Schwimmvögel: Aves natatores. Oiseaux nageurs. Dresden: Expedition der volständigsten Naturgeschichte, 1848?: pl. 284, 51b, Novit. 21, fig. 2341–42 (insert?), pl. 335, 51c, Novit. 72, fig. 2652 (insert?).

Netta Kaup, 1829

Netta Jakob Kaup. Skizzirte Entwickelungs-Geschichte und natürliches System der europäischen Thierwelt. Darmstadt/Leipzig: Carl Wilhelm Leske, 1829, 1:102.

Netta rufina (Pallas, 1773) Red-crested Pochard

Anas rufina P.S. Pallas. “Anhang zum zweiten Theil. Descriptiones animalium.” In Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Rußischen Reichs. Pt. 2, Buch 2, Reise durch verschiedene Theile des Rußischen Reichs im 1771sten Jahr. St. Petersburg: Kaiserlichen Academie der Wissenschaften, 1773:713.

Netta rufina Robert Ridgway. “Some Emended Names of North American Birds.” Proceedings of the United States National Museum 8, no. 23 (1885): 354–356, 355.

Netta erythrophthalma (Wied-Neuwied, 1833) Southern Pochard

A[nas] erythrophthalma Maximilian zu Wied [Maximilian zu Wied-Neuwied]. Beiträge zur Naturgeschichte von Brasilien. Weimar: Verlage des Landes-Industrie-Comptoirs, 1833, Bd. 4, Abt. 2:929.

[Netta] erythrophthalma Jean Delacour and Ernst Mayr. “The Family Anatidae.” Wilson Bulletin 57, no. 1 (1945): [3]–55, 40.

Aythya Boie, 1822

Aythya F. Boie. Tagebuch gehalten auf einer Reise durch Norwegen im Jahre 1817, edited by H. Boie. Schleswig: Königliches Taubstummen Institut, 1822:308 (narr.), 351 (syn.).

Aythya valisineria (Wilson, 1814) Canvasback

Anas valisineria Alexander Wilson. American Ornithology; or, The Natural History of the Birds of the United States. Philadelphia: Bradford and Inskeep, 1814, 8:103, pl. 70, fig. 5.

[Aythya] Valisneria F. Boie. “Generalübersicht der ornithologischen Ordnungen, Familien und Gattungen.” Isis von Oken, Heft 10 (1826): cols. “975”[969]–981, col. 980.

Aythya Vallisneria Charles Lucian Bonaparte [Charles Lucien Bonaparte]. A Geographical and Comparative List of the Birds of Europe and North America. London: John Van Voorst, 1838:58.

Aythya valisineria Jean Delacour and Ernst Mayer. “The Family Anatidae.” Wilson Bulletin 57, no. 1 (1945): [3]–55, 26.

Aythya americana (Eyton, 1838) Redhead

Fuligula americana T. C. Eyton. A Monograph on the Anatidae, or Duck Tribe. London: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman; Shrewsbury: Eddowes, 1838:155.

Aythya americana Spencer F. Baird. Reports of Explorations and Surveys, to Ascertain the Most Practicable and Economical Route for a Railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, Made under the Direction of the Secretary of War, in 1853–6, According to Acts of Congress of March 8, 1853, May 31, 1854, and August 5, 1854. Vol. 9, General Report upon the Zoology of the Several Pacific Railroad Routes. Pt. 2 Birds, by Spencer F. Baird, with the co-operation of John Cassin and George N. Lawrence. House of Representatives Report Ex. Doc. No. 91 (1858): 793.

Aythya ferina (Linnaeus, 1758) Common Pochard

[Anas] ferina Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis . 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:126.

[Aythya] ferina F. Boie. “Ueber Classification, insonderheit der europäischen Vögel.” Isis von Oken, Jg. 1822, Heft 5 (1822): cols. 545–564, col. 564.

Aythya nyroca (Güldenstädt, 1770) Ferruginous Duck

Anas Nyroca A. I. Gueldenstaedt [J. A. Güldenstädt]. “Anas Nyroca.” Novi commentarii Academiae scientiarum imperialis Petropolitanae 14, pt. 1 (1770): 403–408, 403.

[Aythya] nyroca F. Boie. “Ueber Classification, insonderheit der europäischen Vögel.” Isis von Oken, Jg. 1822, Heft 5 (1822): cols. 545–564, col. 564.

Aythya collaris (Donovan, 1809) Ring-necked Duck

Anas Collaris E. Donovan. The Natural History of British Birds; or, A Selection of the Most Rare, Beautiful and Interesting Birds Which Inhabit This Country. The Descriptions from the Systema Naturæ of Linnæus, with General Observations, Either Original or Collected from the Latest and Most Esteemed English Ornithologists, and Embellished with Figures, Drawn, Engraved, and Coloured from the Original Specimens. London: published by author, and F. C. and J. Rivington, 1809, 6: pl. 147, descr. on following pp.

Aythya collaris Robert Ridgway. “Some Emended Names of North American Birds.” Proceedings of the United States National Museum 8, no. 23 (1885): 354–356, 356.

Aythya fuligula (Linnaeus, 1758) Tufted Duck

[Anas] Fuligula Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis . 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:128.

[Aythya] fuligula F. Boie. “Ueber Classification, insonderheit der europäischen Vögel.” Isis von Oken, Jg. 1822, Heft 5 (1822): cols. 545–564, col. 564.

Aythya marila (Linnaeus, 1761) Greater Scaup

[Anas] Marila Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Fauna svecica, sistens animalia sveciæ regni: mammalia, aves, amphibia, pisces, insecta, vermes, distributa per classes & ordines, genera & species, cum differentiis specierum, synonymis auctorum, nominibus incolarum, locis natalium, descriptionibus insectorum. 2nd edn. Stockholmiæ: Laurentii Salvii, 1761:39.

[Aythya] marila F. Boie. “Ueber Classification, insonderheit der europäischen Vögel.” Isis von Oken, Jg. 1822, Heft 5 (1822): cols. 545–564, col. 564.

Aythya affinis (Eyton, 1838) Lesser Scaup

Fuligula affinis T. C. Eyton. A Monograph on the Anatidae, or Duck Tribe. London: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman; Shrewsbury: Eddowes, 1838:157.

Aythya affinis Leonhard Stejneger. “Results of Ornithological Explorations in the Commander Islands and in Kamtschatka”. Bulletin of the United States National Museum, no. 29 (1885): 161.

Polysticta Eyton, 1836

Polysticta T. C. Eyton. “A Catalogue of British Birds.” In A History of the Rarer British Birds. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, and Houlston and Son, 1836:58.

Polysticta stelleri (Pallas, 1769) Steller’s Eider

Anas Stelleri Petri S. Pallas [Peter S. Pallas]. Spicilegia zoologica, quibus novae imprimis et obscurae animalium species iconibus, descriptionibus atque commentariis illustrantur. Berolini [Berlin]: Gottl. August. Lange, 1769, 1, fasc. 6:35, pl. 5.

Polysticta stelleri T. C. Eyton. “A Catalogue of British Birds.” In A History of the Rarer British Birds. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, and Houlston and Son, 1836:58.

Somateria Leach, 1819

Somateria W. E. Leach. “Appendix No. 2: Zoological Memoranda.” In A Voyage of Discovery, Made under the Orders of the Admiralty, in His Majesty’s Ships Isabella and Alexander, for the Purpose of Exploring Baffin’s Bay, and Inquiring into thxe Probability of a North-west Passage, by John Ross. London: John Murray, 1819:48.

Somateria fischeri (Brandt, 1847) Spectacled Eider

Fuligula (Lampronetta) Fischeri Joannes Fridericus Brandt [Johann Friedrich von Brandt]. Fuligula (Lampronetta) Fischeri. Novam avium rossaricum speciem, praemissis observationibus ad fuligularum generis sectionum et subgenerum quorundam characteres et affinitates spectantibus descripsit . Petropoli [Saint Petersburg]: Typis Academiae caesareae scientiarum, 1847:10 (text), 14 (descr.), fig. 1–4. (Republished as “Fulligulam (Lampronettam) Fischeri. Novam avium rossaricum speciem, praemissis observationibus ad fuligularum generis sectionum et subgenerum quorundam characteres et affinitates spectantibus descripsit.” Mémoires de l’Académie impériale des sciences de St.-Pétersbourg, 6th ser., 8, pt. 2: Sciences naturelles, 6 (1849): 6 (narr.), 10, fig. 1.)

S[omateria] Fischeri George Robert Gray. The Genera of Birds, Comprising Their Generic Characters, a Notice of the Habits of Each Genus, and an Extensive List of Species Referred to Their Several Genera. London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1849, 3, Appendix: 28.

Somateria spectabilis (Linnaeus, 1758) King Eider

[Anas] spectabilis Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:123.

Somateria Spectabilis W. E. Leach. “Appendix No. 2: Zoological Memoranda.” In A Voyage of Discovery, Made under the Orders of the Admiralty, in His Majesty’s Ships Isabella and Alexander, for the Purpose of Exploring Baffin’s Bay, and Inquiring into thxe Probability of a North-west Passage, by John Ross. London: John Murray, 1819:48.

Somateria mollissima (Linnaeus, 1758) Common Eider

[Anas] mollissima Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:124.

Somateria mollissima F. Boie. “Ueber Classification, insonderheit der europäischen Vögel.” Isis von Oken, Jg. 1822, Heft 5 (1822): cols. 545–564, col. 564.

S. m. v-nigrum Bonaparte & Gray, 1855 Pacific Eider

Somateria v. nigrum Ch. Bonaparte and George R. Gray. “M. le Prince Ch. Bonaparte présente, au nom de M. Gray un catalogue des oiseaux du Musée britannique, et indique à cette occasion les principales espèces nouvelles qu’il a observées récemment en Angleterre et en Écosse.” Also indexed as
“M. le Prince Ch. Bonaparte présente un exemplaire du catalogue des genres et sous-genres d’oiseaux contenus dans le Musée britannique, par M. J.-Edw. Gray [sic] et indique à cette occasion les principales espèces nouvelles qu’il vient d’observer dans son récent voyage en Écosse et en Angleterre.” Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l’Académie des sciences 41 (1855): 649–661, 661.

Somateria mollissima v-nigrum H. Hocke. “Ueber Enteneier und deren Merkmale [Part 4].”Zeitschift für Oologie 11, no. 4 (1901): 52–55, 52.

S. m. dresseri Sharpe, 1871 Dresser’s Eider

Somateria dresseri R. B. Sharpe. “On the American Eider Duck.” Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 4th ser., 8, no. 43 (1871): 51–53, 51, fig. 1.

Somateria mollissima var(?) dresseri Elliott Coues. Birds of the Northwest: A Hand-book of the Ornithology of the Region Drained by the Missouri River and Its Tributaries. Miscellaneous Publications Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories No. 3. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1874:580.

Somateria mollissima dresseri Robert Ridgway. “A Catalogue of the Birds of North America.” Proceedings of the United States National Museum 3, no. 13 (1880): 163–246, 205.

S. m. mollissima (Linnaeus, 1758)

Histrionicus Lesson, 1828

histrionicus R. P. Lesson. Manuel d’ornithologie, ou Description des genres et des principales espèces d’oiseaux. Paris: Roret, 1828, 2:415.

Histrionicus histrionicus (Linnaeus, 1758) Harlequin Duck

[Anas] histrionica Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:127.

Bucephala (Histrionicus) histrionica George Robert Gray. Hand-list of Genera and Species of Birds, Distinguishing Those Contained in the British Museum. Part 3, Struthiones, Grallæ, and Anseres, with Indices of Generic and Specific Names. London: Trustees [of the British Museum], 1871:87.

Histrionicus histrionicus Adolphus Boucard [Adolphe Boucard]. Catalogus avium. Hucusque descriptorum. Londini [London], 1876:60.

Melanitta Boie, 1822

Melanitta F. Boie. Tagebuch gehalten auf einer Reise durch Norwegen im Jahre 1817, edited by H. Boie. Schleswig: Königliches Taubstummen Institut, 1822:7 (narr.), 351 (syn.).

Melanitta perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758) Surf Scoter

[Anas] perspicillata Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:125.

[Melanitta] perspicillata F. Boie. “Ueber Classification, insonderheit der europäischen Vögel.” Isis von Oken, Jg. 1822, Heft 5 (1822): cols. 545–564, col. 564.

Melanitta fusca (Linnaeus, 1758) Velvet Scoter

[Anas] fusca Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:123.

[Melanitta] fusca F. Boie. “Ueber Classification, insonderheit der europäischen Vögel.” Isis von Oken, Jg. 1822, Heft 5 (1822): cols. 545–564, col. 564.

Melanitta deglandi (Bonaparte, 1850) White-winged Scoter

Oïdemia deglandi Charles Lucien Bonaparte. Revue critique de l’Ornithologie Européenne de M. le docteur Degland (de Lille). Bruxelles [Brussels]: V. Wouters, 1850:108.

Melanetta deglandi Ch. Bonaparte. “Conspectus anserum systematicus.” In “Excursion dans les divers Musées d’Allemagne, de Hollande et de Belgique (suite et fin) [Part 4] et Tableaux parallélique de l’ordre des Palmipèdes.” Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l’Académie des sciences 43, no. 13 (1856): 643–652, 651.Oidemia (Melanitta) Deglandii George Robert Gray. Hand-list of Genera and Species of Birds, Distinguishing Those Contained in the British Museum. Part 3, Struthiones, Grallæ, and Anseres, with Indices of Generic and Specific Names. London: Trustees [of the British Museum], 1871:89.

M[elanitta] deglandi W. DeW. Miller. “The Classification of the Scoters.” Auk 33, no. 3 (1916): 278.

Melanitta stejnegeri (Ridgway, 1887) Stejneger’s Scoter

O[idemia (Melanitta)] stejnegeri Robert Ridgway. A Manual of North American Birds. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1887:112.

[Melanita] stejnegeri P. Baxter, H. Maggs and C. Gibbins. “The White-winged Scoter in Aberdeenshire: A New Scottish Bird.” Scottish Birds 32, no. 3 (2009): 269–275, 269.

Melanitta nigra (Linnaeus, 1758) Common Scoter

[Anas] nigra Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:123.

[Melanitta] nigra F. Boie. “Ueber Classification, insonderheit der europäischen Vögel.” Isis von Oken, Jg. 1822, Heft 5 (1822): cols. 545–564, col. 564.

Melanitta americana (Swainson, 1832) Black Scoter

Oidemia Americana William Swainson. “Oidemia Americana (Swainson.) American Scoter.” In Fauna boreali-americana; or, The Zoology of the Northern Parts of British America: Containing Descriptions of the Objects of Natural History Collected on the Late Northern Land Expeditions under Command of Captain Sir John Franklin, R.N.. Pt. 2, The Birds, by William Swainson and John Richardson. London: John Murray, “1831” [1832]: 450.

Melanitta americana T. C. Eyton. A Monograph on the Anatidae, or Duck Tribe. London: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, 1838:144.

Clangula Leach, 1819

Clangula W. E. Leach. “Appendix No. 2: Zoological Memoranda.” In A Voyage of Discovery, Made under the Orders of the Admiralty, in His Majesty’s Ships Isabella and Alexander, for the Purpose of Exploring Baffin’s Bay, and Inquiring into thxe Probability of a North-west Passage, by John Ross. London: John Murray, 1819:48.

Clangula hyemalis (Linnaeus, 1758) Long-tailed Duck / IJseend

[Anas] hyemalis Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:126.

Cl[angula] hiemalis [C. L.] Brehm. “Beschluß der Uebersicht der deutschen Vögel.” [= “Uebersicht der deutschen Vögelarten [Part 2].”] Isis von Oken 23, Heft 10 (1830): cols. 985–1013, col. 999.

Clangula hyemalis J. P. van Wickevoort Crommelin. “Nouvelles ornithologiques sur la faune des Pays-Bas.” Archives néerlandaises des sciences exactes et naturelles 10, no. 11 (1875): [166]–180, 175.

Bucephala Baird, 1858

Bucephala Spencer F. Baird. Reports of Explorations and Surveys, to Ascertain the Most Practicable and Economical Route for a Railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, Made under the Direction of the Secretary of War, in 1853–6, According to Acts of Congress of March 8, 1853, May 31, 1854, and August 5, 1854. Vol. 9, General Report upon the Zoology of the Several Pacific Railroad Routes. Pt. 2 Birds, by Spencer F. Baird, with the co-operation of John Cassin and George N. Lawrence. House of Representatives Report Ex. Doc. No. 91 (1858): xxiii (list), 795 (descr.).

Bucephala albeola (Linnaeus, 1758) Bufflehead / Buffelkopeend

[Anas] Albeola Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:124.

Bucephala albeola Spencer F. Baird. Reports of Explorations and Surveys, to Ascertain the Most Practicable and Economical Route for a Railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, Made under the Direction of the Secretary of War, in 1853–6, According to Acts of Congress of March 8, 1853, May 31, 1854, and August 5, 1854. Vol. 9, General Report upon the Zoology of the Several Pacific Railroad Routes. Pt. 2 Birds, by Spencer F. Baird, with the co-operation of John Cassin and George N. Lawrence. House of Representatives Report Ex. Doc. No. 91 (1858): 797.

Bucephala clangula (Linnaeus, 1758) Common Goldeneye

[Anas] Clangula Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:125.

[Bucephala] clangula George Robert Gray. Hand-list of Genera and Species of Birds, Distinguishing Those Contained in the British Museum. Part 3, Struthiones, Grallæ, and Anseres, with Indices of Generic and Specific Names. London: Trustees [of the British Museum], 1871:87.

.

Bucephala islandica (Gmelin, 1789) Barrow’s Goldeneye

Anas islandica Jo. Fridr. Gmelin. “Anas islandica.” In Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, by Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. 13th edn., edited by Jo. Frid. Gmelin. Lugduni [Lyon]: J. B. Delamolliere, 1789, 1, pt. 2:541.

Bucephala islandica Spencer F. Baird. Reports of Explorations and Surveys, to Ascertain the Most Practicable and Economical Route for a Railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, Made under the Direction of the Secretary of War, in 1853–6, According to Acts of Congress of March 8, 1853, May 31, 1854, and August 5, 1854. Vol. 9, General Report upon the Zoology of the Several Pacific Railroad Routes. Pt. 2 Birds, by Spencer F. Baird, with the co-operation of John Cassin and George N. Lawrence. House of Representatives Report Ex. Doc. No. 91 (1858): 796.

Mergellus Selby, 1840

Mergellus P. J. Selby. A Catalogue of the Generic and Sub-generic Types of the Class Aves, Birds, Arranged According to the Natural System with Separate Lists, Distinguishing the Various Quarters of the Globe in Which They Are to Be Procured. Newcastle: T. and J. Hodgson, 1840:47.

Mergellus albellus (Linnaeus, 1758) Smew

Anas Albellus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:129.

Mergellus albellus P. J. Selby. A Catalogue of the Generic and Sub-generic Types of the Class Aves, Birds, Arranged According to the Natural System with Separate Lists, Distinguishing the Various Quarters of the Globe in Which They Are to Be Procured. Newcastle: T. and J. Hodgson, 1840:47.

Lophodytes Reichenbach, 1853

Lophodytes L. Reichenbach. “Die Vögel. The Birds. Aves. Les oiseaux – Systema avium.” In Avium systema nature. Das natürliche System der Vögel. Mit hundert Tafeln größtenteils Original-Abbildungen der bis jetzt entdeckten fast zwölfhundert typischen Formen = Ornithologie méthodique; ou, Exposé des genres des oiseaux de toutes les parties du monde, réunissant les découvertes les plus récentes représentant a peu près mille et deux cent types charactérestiques. Dresden: Expedition der Vollständigsten Naturgeschichte, 1853:9. Die vollständigste Naturgeschichte der Schwimmvögel: Aves natatores. Oiseaux nageurs. Dresden: Expedition der volständigsten Naturgeschichte, 1848?: pl. 39, fig. 88–89.

Lophodytes cucullatus (Linnaeus, 1758) Hooded Merganser

[Anas] cucullatus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:129.

[Lophodytes] cucullatus L. Reichenbach. “Die Vögel. The Birds. Aves. Les oiseaux – Systema avium.” In Avium systema nature. Das natürliche System der Vögel. Mit hundert Tafeln größtenteils Original-Abbildungen der bis jetzt entdeckten fast zwölfhundert typischen Formen = Ornithologie méthodique; ou, Exposé des genres des oiseaux de toutes les parties du monde, réunissant les découvertes les plus récentes représentant a peu près mille et deux cent types charactérestiques. Dresden und Leipzig: Expedition der Vollständigsten Naturgeschichte, 1853:9. Die vollständigste Naturgeschichte der Schwimmvögel: Aves natatores. Oiseaux nageurs. Dresden: Expedition der volständigsten Naturgeschichte, 1848?: pl. 39, fig. 88–89.

Mergus Linnaeus, 1758

Mergus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:129.

Mergus merganser Linnaeus, 1758 Common Merganser

[Mergus] Merganser Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:129.

Mergus serrator Linnaeus, 1758 Red-breasted Merganser

[Mergus] Serrator Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:129.

Oxyura Bonaparte, 1828

Oxyura Charles Lucian Bonaparte [Charles Lucien Bonaparte]. “The Genera of North American Birds, and a Synopsis of the Species Found within the Territory of the United States: Systematically Arranged in Orders and Families (Part 2).” Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York 2, no. 12–14 (1828): 193–451, 390.

Oxyura jamaicensis (Gmelin, 1789) Ruddy Duck

Anas jamaicensis Jo. Fridr. Gmelin. “Anas jamaicensis.” In Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, by Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. 13th edn., edited by Jo. Frid. Gmelin. Lugduni [Lyon]: J. B. Delamolliere, 1789, 1, pt. 2:519.

Oxyura jamaicensis John C. Phillips. A Natural History of the Ducks. Vol. 4, Fuligulinæ (Concluded), Oxyurinæ, Merganettinæ and Merginæ. Boston, New York, Houghton Mifflin, 1926:159, pl. 84.

Oxyura leucocephala (Scopoli, 1769) White-headed Duck

Anas leucocephala Ioannis Antonii Scopoli [Giovanni Antonio Scopoli]. Annus I historico-naturalis. Lipsiæ [Leipzig]: Verlag von Christ. Gottlob Hilscheri, 1769:65.

[Oxyura leucocephala] Léon Olphe-Galliard. Contributions à la faune ornithologique de l’Europe occidentale. Recueil comprenant les espèces d’oiseaux qui se reproduisent dans cette région ou qui s’y montrent régulièrement de passage, augmenté de la description des principales espèces exotiques les plus voisines des indigènes ou susceptibles d’être confondues avec elles, ainsi que l’énumération des races domestiques. Bordeaux: Veuve Cadoret, 1887, fasc. 2: 30.

NUMIDIDAE de Sélys Longchamps, 1842

Numimidæ Edm. de Selys-Longchamps [Edm. de Sélys Longchamps]. Project de classification des oiseaux. In Faune belge. Part 1, Indication méthodique des mammifères, oiseaux, reptiles et poissions observé jusqu’ice en Belgique. Liège: H. Dessain, 1842: [273]. [error?]

Numididae [Lorenz Oken]. Review of Faune belge. I. Mammifères–Poissons, by E. Selys-Longchamps [Edm. de Sélys Longchamps]. Isis von Oken, Jg. 1844, Heft. 8 (1844): cols. 628–631, col. 630.

Numida Linnaeus, 1764

Numida Carolo v. Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. Museum s:æ r:æ m:tis Adolphi Frederici regis svecorum, gothorum, vandalorumque &c. &c. &c. In quo animalia rariora. Imprimis & exotica: aves, amphibia, pisces describuntur. In Museum s:æ r:æ m:tis Ludovicæ Ulricæ reginæ svecorum, gothorum, vandalorumque &c. &c. &c. In quo animalia rariora, exotica, imprimis insecta & conchilia describuntur & determinantur prodromi instar editum. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Laur. Salvii, 1764, 2:27.

Numida meleagris (Linnaeus, 1758) Helmeted Guineafowl

[Phasianus] Meleagris Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:158.

[Numida] Meleagris Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 12th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1766, 1:273.

ODONTOPHORIDAE Gould, 1944

Odontophorinæ John Gould. A Monograph of the Odontophorinæ, or Partridges of America. London: published by author, 1844, pt. 1, ??. (Collated and republished as A Monograph of the Odontophorinæ, or Partridges of America. London: published by author, 1850: [iii].)

Odontophoridæ Alexander Macalister. An Introduction to the Systematic Zoology and Morphology of Vertebrate Animals. Dublin University Press Series. Dublin: Hodges, Foster and Figgis, 1878:176.

Callipepla Wagler, 1832

Callipepla [J. G.] Wagler. “Mittheilungen über einige mirkwürdige Thiere.” Isis von Oken, Jg. 1832, Heft 3 (1832): cols. 275–282, col. 277.

Callipepla californica (Shaw, 1798) California Quail

Tetrao Californicus George Shaw. “Tetrao Californicus.” In Naturæ vivarii = The Naturalist’s Miscellany, by George Shaw and Frederick P. Nodder. [London: Nodder, 1798], fasc. 108., name preceeding pl. 345. (Collated and republished as Naturæ vivarii = The Naturalist’s Miscellany, by George Shaw and Frederick P. Nodder. [London: Nodder, 1798?], 9: pp. preceeding pl. 345.)

Callipepla californica John Gould. A Monograph of the Odontophorinæ, or Partridges of America. London: published by author, 1844, pt. 1: pl. 16. (Collated and republished as A Monograph of the Odontophorinæ, or Partridges of America. London: published by author, 1850: [ix], pl. [16], text on following pp.)

Colinus Goldfuss, 1820

Colinus Georg August Goldfuß. Systematische Uebersicht der Gattungen. Abt. 2 of Handbuch der Zoologie. Pt. 3, Abt. 2 of Handbuch der Naturgeschichte, zum Gebrauch bei Vorlesungen, by G. H. Schubert [G. H. von Schubert]. Nürnberg: Johann Leonhard Schrag, 1820:220

Colinus virginianus (Linnaeus, 1758) Northern Bobwhite

[Tetrao] virginianus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:161.

Colinus virginianus Leonhard Stejneger. “Analecta ornithologica, Fourth Series.” Auk 2, no. 1 (1885): 43–52, 45.

PHASIANIDAE Horsfield, 1821

Phasiani William Elford Leach. The Zoological Miscellany: Being Descriptions of New, or Interesting Animals. London: E. Nodder and Son, 1815, 2:13.

Phasianidæ Thomas Horsfield. “Systematic Arrangement and Description of Birds from the Island of Java.” Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 13, pt. 1 (1821): 133–200, 185.

Tetrastes Keyserling & Blasius, 1840

Tetrastes A. von Keyserling and J. H. Blasius. “Systematisches Verzeichniss der Wirbelthire Europa’s.” In Die Wirbelthiere Europa’s. Buch 1, Die unterscheidenden Charactere. Braunschweig: Friedrich Vieweg und Sohn, 1840:lxiv.

Tetrastes bonasia (Linnaeus, 1758) Hazel Grouse

[Tetrao] Bonasia Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:160.

Tetrastes Bonasia A. von Keyserling and J. H. Blasius. “Systematisches Verzeichniss der Wirbelthire Europa’s.” In Die Wirbelthiere Europa’s. Buch 1, Die unterscheidenden Charactere. Braunschweig: Friedrich Vieweg und Sohn, 1840:200.

Tetrao Linnaeus, 1758

Tetrao Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:159.

Tetrao urogallus Linnaeus, 1758 Western Capercaillie

Tetrao Urogallus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:159.

Lyrurus Swainson, 1832

Lyrurus William Swainson. “Characters of Genera and Sub-genera Hitherto Undefined.” In Fauna boreali-americana; or, The Zoology of the Northern Parts of British America: Containing Descriptions of the Objects of Natural History Collected on the Late Northern Land Expeditions under Command of Captain Sir John Franklin, R.N.. Part 2, The Birds, by William Swainson and John Richardson. London: John Murray, “1831” [1832]: [481]–497, 497.

Lyrurus tetrix (Linnaeus, 1758) Black Grouse

Tetrao Tetrix Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:159.

Lyrurus tetrix William Swainson. “Characters of Genera and Sub-genera Hitherto Undefined.” In Fauna boreali-americana; or, The Zoology of the Northern Parts of British America: Containing Descriptions of the Objects of Natural History Collected on the Late Northern Land Expeditions under Command of Captain Sir John Franklin, R.N.. Part 2, The Birds, by William Swainson and John Richardson. London: John Murray, “1831” [1832]: [481]–497, 497.

Lyrurus mlokosiewiczi (Taczanowski, 1875) Caucasian Grouse

Tetrao mlokosiewiczi L. Taczanowski [W. Taczanowski]. “Description d’une nouvelle espèce de Coq de bruyère.” Proceedings of the Scientific Meetings of of the Zoological Society of London for the Year 1875, pt. 2, no. 17 (1875): 266–269, 267

Lyrurus mlokosiewiczi W. R. Ogilvie-Grant. Catalogue of the Birds in the British Museum. Vol. 22, Catalogue of the Game Birds (Pterocletes, Gallinæ, Opisthocomi, Hemipodii) in the Collection of the British Museum. London: Trustees [of the British Museum (Matural History)], 1893:58.

Lagopus Brisson, 1760

Lagopus M. Brisson. Ornithologie; ou, Méthode contenant la division des oiseaux en ordres, sections, genres, especes & leurs variétés. A laquelle on a joint une description exacte de chaque espece, avec les citations des auteurs qui en ont traité, les noms quils leur ont donnés, ceux que leur ont donnés les différentes nations, & les noms vulgaires = Ornithologia; sive, Synopsis methodica sistens avium divisionem in ordines, sectiones, genera, species, ipsarumque varietates. Cum accurata cujusque speciei descriptione, citacionibus auctorum de iis tractantium, nominibus eis ab ipsis & nationibus impositis, nominibusque vulgaribus. Paris: Cl. Jean-Baptiste Bauche, 1760, 1:26 (tab.), 181 (txt.).

Lagopus muta Montin, 1781 Rock Ptarmigan

Tetrao mutus Lars Montin. “Tvånne arter af Snóripan.” Physiographiska Sällskapets handlingar 1, sect. 3 (“1776” [1781]): 150–155, 155.

Lagopus mutus [W. E. Leach]. Systematic Catalogue of the Specimens of the Indigenous Mammalia and Birds That Are Present in the British Museum, with Their Localities and Authorities. To Which Is Added a List of the Described Species That Are Wanting to Complete the Collection of British Mammalia and Birds. London: Richard and Arthur Taylor, 1816:27. (Republished as Leach’s Systematic Catalogue of the Specimens of the Indigenous Mammalia and Birds in the British Museum. Edited by Osbert Salvin. London: Willughby Society, 1882:27.)

Lagopus muta Leonhard Stejneger. “A Brief Review of the Lagopodes Belonging to the Group Attagen Kaup.” Zeitschrift für die gesammte Ornithologie 1, Heft 2 (1884): 86–92, 87.

Lagopus lagopus (Linnaeus, 1758) Willow Ptarmigan

[Tetrao] Lagopus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:159.

Lagopus lagopus Henry Seebohm. A History of British Birds, with Coloured Illustrations of Their Eggs. London: R. H. Porter, 1884, 2:423.

L. l. scotica (Latham, 1787) Red Grouse

[Tetrao] Scoticus [John Latham]. Supplement to the General Synopsis of Birds. London: Leigh and Sotheby, 1787:290.

Lagopus lagopus scotica George Sangster, J. Martin Collinson, Andreas J. Helbig, Alan. G. Knox and David T. Parkin. “Taxonomic Recommendations for British birds: Second Report.” Ibis 146, no. 1 (2004): 153–157, 153. Since Lagopus is feminine, gender change after Normand David and Michel Gosselin. “The Grammatical Gender of Avian Genera.” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 122, no. 4 (2002): 257–282, 258.

Lagopus scoticus [W. E. Leach]. Systematic Catalogue of the Specimens of the Indigenous Mammalia and Birds That Are Present in the British Museum, with Their Localities and Authorities. To Which Is Added a List of the Described Species That Are Wanting to Complete the Collection of British Mammalia and Birds. London: Richard and Arthur Taylor, 1816:27. (Republished as Leach’s Systematic Catalogue of the Specimens of the Indigenous Mammalia and Birds in the British Museum. Edited by Osbert Salvin. London: Willughby Society, 1882:27.

Lagopus lagopus scoticus Ernst Hartert. “Birds Peculiar to the British Islands.” Ibis, 9th ser., 1, no. 4 (1907): 656. Announcement of “On Birds Represented in the British Isles by Peculiar Forms.” British Birds 1, no. 7 (1907): 208–222, 222.

L. l. lagopus (Latham, 1787)

Tetraogallus Gray, 1832

Tetraogallus John Edward Gray. Illustrations of Indian Zoology, Chiefly Selected from the Collection of Major-General Hardwicke, FRS. London: Treuttel, Wurtz, Treuttel, Jun. and Richter, 1832, pt. 11: pl. 46. (Collated and republished as Illustrations of Indian Zoology, Chiefly Selected from the Collection of Major-General Hardwicke, FRS. London: Adolphus Richter, 1834, 2: pl. 46.)

Tetraogallus caucasicus (Pallas, 1811) Caucasian Snowcock

Tetrao caucasica Petro Pallas [Peter Pallas]. Zoographia rosso-asiatica, sistens omnium animalium in extenso imperio rossico, et adjacentibus maribus observatorum recensionem, domicilia, mores et descriptiones, anatomen atque icones plurimorum. Petropoli [Saint Petersburg]: Ex officina Caes. Academiae scientiarum, 1811, 2:76. (Republished as Zoographia rosso-asiatica, sistens omnium animalium in extenso imperio rossico, et adjacentibus maribus observatorum recensionem, domicilia, mores et descriptiones, anatomen atque icones plurimorum. Petropoli [Saint Petersburg]: In officina Caesareum Academiae scientiarum impress, 1831, 2:76.)

Tetraogallus caucasicus A. Marchand. “Poussins des oiseaux d’Europe.” Revue et magasin de zoologie pure et appliquée, an. 14, 3rd ser., t. 5 (1877): 354–358, 354, pl. 12.

Tetraogallus caspius (Gmelin, 1784) Caspian Snowcock

Tetrao caspius Samuel Gottlieb Gmelin. Reise durch Russland zur Untersuchung der drey Natur-Reiche. Theil 4, Reise von Astrachan nach Zarigyn und von da durch die Kumanische Steppe, über Mosdok zurük, imgleichen zweyte Persische Reise, in den Jahren 1772 und 1773, bis im Frühling 1774. St. Petersburg: Kayserlichen Academie der Wissenschaften, 1784:67, pl. 10.

Tetraogallus Caspius John Gould. The Birds of Asia. London: published by author, 1853, fasc. 5, pl. 26, text on following pages. (Collated and republished in The Birds of Asia. London: published by author, 1883, 7: pl. 26, text on following pages.

)

Alectoris Kaup, 1829

Alectoris Jakob Kaup. Skizzirte Entwickelungs-Geschichte und natürliches System der europäischen Thierwelt. Darmstadt: Carl Wilhelm Leske, 1829, 1:180, 193.

Alectoris graeca (Meisner, 1804) Rock Partridge

[Perdix] Graeca Friedrich Meisner Systematisches Verzeichniss der Vogel, welche die Schweiz entweder bewohnen, oder theils zu bestemmten, theils zu unbestemmten Zeiten besuchen, und sich auf der Gallerie der Bürger-Bibliothek in Bern ausgestopft befinden. Bern: Hallerschen Buchhandlung, 1804:41.

A[lectoris] graeca Ernst Hartert Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. Berlin: R. Friedländer and Sohn, 1921, Heft 16 (Bd. 3, Heft 2): 1903 (tab.), 1905 (text). (Collated and republished in Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. Berlin: R. Friedländer and Sohn, 1922, Bd. 3:1903 (tab.), 1905 (text).)

A. g. graeca (Meisner, 1804)

A. g. whitakeri Schiebel, 1934 Sicilian Rock Partridge

Alectoris graeca whitakeri G. Schiebel. “Alectoris graeca whitakeri subsp. nova. Steinhuhn von Sizilien.” Falco 30, no. 1 (1934): 2–3, 2.

Alectoris chukar (Gray, 1830) Chukar Partridge

Perdix Chukar John Edward Gray. Illustrations of Indian Zoology, Chiefly Selected from the Collection of Major-General Hardwicke, FRS. London: Treuttel, Wurtz, Treuttel, Jun. and Richter, 1830, pt. 2, pl. 54. (Collated and republished as Illustrations of Indian Zoology, Chiefly Selected from the Collection of Major-General Hardwicke, FRS. London: Treuttel, Wurtz, Treuttel, Jun. and Richter, 1832, 1: pl. 54.)

A[lectoris] chukar P. P. Sushkin. “Notes on Alectoris chukar, with Descriptions of Six New Subspecies.” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 48, no. 317 (1927): 22–27, 22.

Alectoris philbyi Lowe, 1934 Philby’s Partridge

Alectoris græca philbyi P. R. Lowe. “Description of a New Form of the Red Legged Partridge (Alectoris græca philbyi) from Arabia.” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 55, no. 380 (1934): 8–9, 8.

A[lectoris] philbyi George E. Watson. “Sympatry in Palearctic Alectoris Partridges.” Evolution 16, No. 1 (1962): 11–19, 15.

Alectoris barbara (Bonnaterre, 1790) Barbary Partridge

Perdix Barbara [P. J.] Bonnaterre. Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature. Ornithologie. Paris: Panckoucke, 1790, livr. 38: pl. 94, fig. 2; 1792, livr. 51:208 (text). (Collated and republished in [P. J.] Bonnaterre and L. P. Vieillot. Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature. Ornithologie. Paris: Mme. veuve Agasse, 1823, pt. 1:208 (text); [pt. 4] Planches: pl. 94, fig. 2.)

A[lectoris] barbara Ernst Hartert. Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. R. Friedländer & Sohn, 1921, Heft 16 (Bd. 3, Heft 2): 1903 (table), 1910 (text). (Collated and republished in Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. R. Friedländer & Sohn, 1922, Bd. 3:1903 (table), 1910 (text).)

A. b. barbara (Bonnaterre, 1790)

A. b. barbata (Reichenow, 1896)

C[accabis] barbata Ant. Reichenow. “Über ein merkwürdiges Steinhuhn.” Ornithologische Monatsberichte 4, no. 5 (1896): 76.

Alectoris barbara barbata Ernst Hartert. Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. R. Friedländer & Sohn, 1922, Heft 18–19 (Bd. 3, Heft 4–5): 2215. (Collated and republished in Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. R. Friedländer & Sohn, 1922, Bd. 3:2215.)

Alectoris rufa (Linnaeus, 1758) Red-legged Partridge

[Tetrao] rufus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:160.

A[lectoris] rufa Ernst Hartert. Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. R. Friedländer & Sohn, 1921, Heft 16 (Bd. 3, Heft 2): 1903 (table), 1912 (text). (Collated and republished in Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. R. Friedländer & Sohn, 1922, Bd. 3:1903 (table), 1912 (text).)

Alectoris melanocephala (Rüppell, 1835) Arabian Partridge

Perdix melanocephala Eduard Rüppell. Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Frankfurt am Main: Siegmund Schmerber, 1835, livr. 2 (Vögel): 11, fig. 5. (Collated and republished in Vögel. In Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Frankfurt am Main: Siegmund Schmerber, 1840:11, fig. 5).

A[lectoris] melanocephala Ernst Hartert. Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. R. Friedländer & Sohn, 1921, Heft 16 (Bd. 3, Heft 2): 1903 (table), 1915 (text). (Collated and republished in Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. R. Friedländer & Sohn, 1922, Bd. 3:1903 (table), 1915 (text).)

Ammoperdix Gould, 1851

Ammoperdix John Gould. The Birds of Asia. London: published by author, 1851, pt. 3: pl. 1, text on following page. (Collated and republished in The Birds of Asia. London: published by author, [1883?], 7: pl. 1, text on following page.)

Ammoperdix griseogularis (Brandt, 1843) See-see Partridge

Perdix griseogularis J.-F. Brandt [J. F. von Brandt]. “Notes sur une nouvelles espèces de Perdrix (Perdix griseogularis).” Bulletin de la Classe physico-mathématique de l’Académie impériale des sciences de St.-Péterbourg 1, no. 23 (1843): col. 365.

Ammoperdix griseogularis F. De Filippi. Note di un viaggio in Persia nel 1862. Milano [Milan]: G. Daelli, 1865, 1:351.

Ammoperdix heyi (Temminck, 1825) Sand Partridge

Perdix Heyi C. J. Temminck. “Perdrix de Hey. Perdix Heyi. Temm.” In Nouveau recueil de planches coloriées d’oiseaux, pour servir de suite et de complément aux planches enluminées de Buffon. Paris: F. G. Levrault, 1825, livr. 55: pl. 328, 329. (Collated and republished as Nouveau recueil de planches coloriées d’oiseaux, pour servir de suite et de complément aux planches enluminées de Buffon, édition in-folio et in-4⁰ de l’Imprimerie royale, 1770. Paris: F. G. Levrault, 1838, 5: pl. 328, 329, name on following page [101].)

Ammoperdix Heyi John Gould. The Birds of Asia. London: published by author, 1851, pt. 3: pl. 1, text on following page. (Collated and republished in The Birds of Asia. London: published by author, 1851, 7: pl. 2, text on following page.)

Francolinus Stephens, 1819

Francolinus James Francis Stephens. General Zoology; or, Systematic Natural History Vol. 11, pt. 2, Birds. London: J. Walker; Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme and Brown; J. and A. Arch; E. Jeffery; Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy; R. Scholey; Sherwood, Neely and Jones; G. and W. B. Whittaker; J. Black and Son; W. Lowe; J. Booth; S. Bagster; J. Mawman; R. Fenner; Ogle; Rodwell; J. Robinson; and J. Harper, 1819:316.

Francolinus francolinus (Linnaeus, 1766) Black Francolin

[Tetrao] Francolinus Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 12th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1766, 1:275.

Francolinus francolinus W. R. Ogilvie Grant [W. R. Ogilvie-Grant] “A Short Review of the Francolins Belonging to the Genera Francolinus and Pternistes.” Ibis, 6th ser., 4, no. 13 (1892): 32–55, 38.

F. f. francolinus (Linnaeus, 1766)

F. f. arabistanicus Zarudny & Härms, 1913

Francolinus orientalis arabistanicus N. Sarudny [N. Zarudny] and M. Härms. “Neue Formen der Frankoline aus Persien.” Ornithologische Monatsberichte 21, no. 4 (1913): [53]–55, 54.

Francolinus francolinus arabistanicus Ernst Hartert. Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. R. Friedländer & Sohn, 1921, Heft 16 (Bd. 3, Heft 2): 1923. (Collated and republished in Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. R. Friedländer & Sohn, 1922, Bd. 3:1923.)

F. f. bogdanovi Zarudny, 1906

Francolinus orientalis bogdanovi N. Sarudny [N. Zarudny]. “Francolinus orientalis bogdanovi subsp. nov.” Ornithologische Monatsberichte 14, no. 9 (1906): 151–152, 151.

Francolinus francolinus bogdanovi Ernst Hartert. Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. R. Friedländer & Sohn, 1921, Heft 16 (Bd. 3, Heft 2): 1923. (Collated and republished in Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. R. Friedländer & Sohn, 1922, Bd. 3:1922.)

Francolinus pondicerianus (Gmelin, 1789) Grey Francolin

[Tetrao] pondicerianus Jo. Fridr. Gmelin. “[Tetrao] pondicerianus.” In Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, by Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. 13th edn., edited by Jo. Frid. Gmelin. Lugduni [Lyon]: J. B. Delamolliere, 1789, 1, pt. 2:760.

James Francis Stephens. General Zoology; or, Systematic Natural History, Commenced by the Late George Shaw M.D. F.R.S. Vol. 11, pt. 2, Birds. London: J. Walker; Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme and Brown; J. and A. Arch; E. Jeffery; Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy; R. Scholey; Sherwood, Neely and Jones; G. and W. B. Whittaker; J. Black and Son; W. Lowe; J. Booth; S. Bagster; J. Mawman; R. Fenner; Ogle; Rodwell; J. Robinson; and J. Harper, 1819:321.

Pternistis Wagler, 1832

Pternistis [J. G.] Wagler. “Neue Sippen und Gattungen Säugthiere und Vögel.” Isis von Oken, Jg. 1832, Heft 11 (1832): cols. 1218–1235, col. 1229.

Pternistis erckelii (Rüppell, 1835) Erckel’s Spurfowl

Perdix Erckelii Eduard Rüppell. Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Frankfurt am Main: Siegmund Schmerber, 1835, livr. 2 (Vögel): 12, fig. 6. (Collated and republished in Vögel. In Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Frankfurt am Main: Siegmund Schmerber, 1840:12, fig. 6).

[Pternistis] erckelii Timothy M. Crowe, Eric H. Harley, Mariola B. Jakutowicz, Joris Komen and Anna A. Crowe. “Phylogenetic, Taxonomic and Biogeographical Implications of Genetic, Morphological, and Behavioral Variation in Francolins (Phasianidae: Francolinus).” Auk 109, no. 1 (1992): 24–42, 37.

Pternistis bicalcaratus (Linnaeus, 1766) Double-spurred Spurfowl

[Tetrao] bicalcaratus Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 12th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1766, 1:277.

[Pternistis] bicalcaratus Timothy M. Crowe, Eric H. Harley, Mariola B. Jakutowicz, Joris Komen and Anna A. Crowe. “Phylogenetic, Taxonomic and Biogeographical Implications of Genetic, Morphological, and Behavioral Variation in Francolins (Phasianidae: Francolinus).” Auk 109, no. 1 (1992): 24–42, 37.

Perdix Brisson, 1760

Perdix M. J. Brisson. Ornithologie; ou, Méthode contenant la division des oiseaux en ordres, sections, genres, especes & leurs variétés. A laquelle on a joint une description exacte de chaque espece, avec les citations des auteurs qui en ont traité, les noms quils leur ont donnés, ceux que leur ont donnés les différentes nations, & les noms vulgaires = Ornithologia; sive, Synopsis methodica sistens avium divisionem in ordines, sectiones, genera, species, ipsarumque varietates. Cum accurata cujusque speciei descriptione, citacionibus auctorum de iis tractantium, nominibus eis ab ipsis & nationibus impositis, nominibusque vulgaribus. Paris: Cl. Jean-Baptiste Bauche, 1760, 1:26 (table), 219 (text).

Perdix perdix (Linnaeus, 1758) Grey Partridge

[Tetrao] Perdix Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:160.

Perdix perdix Ernst Hartert. Katalog der Vogelsammlung in Museum der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Frankfurt am Main. Frankfurt am Main: Gebrüder Knauer, 1891:194.

Coturnix Garsault, 1764

Coturnix [François Alexandre Pierre] de Garsault. Les figures des plantes et animaux d’usage en medecine, décrits dans la Matiere Medicale de Geoffroy Medecin. [Paris]: published by author, [1764], 5: pl. 686.

Coturnix coturnix (Linnaeus, 1758) Common Quail

[Tetrao] Coturnix Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:161.

[Coturnix] coturnix [Hinrich] Lichtenstein. Nomenclator avium Musei zoologici berolinensis = Namenverzeichniss der in der zoologischen Sammlung der Königlichen Universität zu Berlin aufgestellten Arten von Vögeln nach den in der neueren Systematik am meisten zur Geltung gekommenen Namen der Gattungen und ihrer Unterabtheilungen. Berlin: [Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften], 1854:84.

Coturnix delegorguei Delegorgue, 1847 Harlequin Quail

Coturnix Delegorguei Adulphe Delegorgue. Voyage dans L’Afrique australe, notamment dans le territoire de Natal dans celui des cafres Amazoulous et Makatisses et jusqu’au tropique de Capricorne, exécuté dans les années 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842, 1843 & 1844, accompagné de dessins et cartes. With an introduction by Albert Montémont. Paris: A. René, [1847], 2:615.

Syrmaticus Wagler, 1832

Syrmaticus [J. G.] Wagler. “Neue Sippen und Gattungen Säugthiere und Vögel.” Isis von Oken, Jg. 1832, Heft 11 (1832): cols. 1218–1235, col. 1229.

Syrmaticus reevesii (Gray, 1829) Reeves’s Pheasant

Phasianus Reevesii John Edward Gray. “Reeves’ Pheasant, Phasianus Reevesii. Gray.” In Aves, Part 8, by Edward Griffith. Pt. 20 of The Animal Kingdom Described and Arranged in Conformity with Its Organization, by the Baron Cuvier, Member of the Institute of France &c. &c. &c. with Additional Descriptions of All the Species Hitherto Named, and of Many not Before Noticed, by Edward Griffith and Others. [Translated by Edward Pidgeon?] London: Whittaker, Treacher, [1829]: 25. (Collated and republished in The Animal Kingdom Arranged in Conformity with Its Organization, by the Baron Cuvier, Member of the Institute of France &c. &c. &c. with Additional Descriptions of All the Species Hitherto Named, and of Many not Before Noticed, by Edward Griffith and Others. Vol. 8, The Class of Aves Arranged by the Baron Cuvier, with Specific Descriptions, by Edward Griffith and Edward Pidgeon. London: Whittaker, Treacher, “1829” [1830], 3:25.)

Syrmaticus reevesii [J. G.] Wagler. “Neue Sippen und Gattungen Säugthiere und Vögel.” Isis von Oken, Jg. 1832, Heft 11 (1832): cols. 1218–1235, col. 1229.

Phasianus Linnaeus, 1758

Phasianus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:158.

Phasianus colchicus Linnaeus, 1758 Common Pheasant

[Phasianus] colchicus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:158.

Chrysolophus Gray, 1834

Chrysolophus John Edward Gray. Illustrations of Indian Zoology, Chiefly Selected from the Collection of Major-General Hardwicke, FRS. London: Adolphus Richter, 1834, pt. 15 + 16: pl. 41, fig. 2. (Collated and republished in Illustrations of Indian Zoology, Chiefly Selected from the Collection of Major-General Hardwicke, FRS. London: Adolphus Richter, 1834, 2: pl. 41, fig. 2.)

Chrysolophus pictus (Linnaeus, 1758) Golden Pheasant

[Phasianus] pictus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:158.

Chrysolophus pictus John Edward Gray. Illustrations of Indian Zoology, Chiefly Selected from the Collection of Major-General Hardwicke, FRS. London: Adolphus Richter, 1834, pt. 15 + 16: pl. 41, fig. 2. (Collated and republished in Illustrations of Indian Zoology, Chiefly Selected from the Collection of Major-General Hardwicke, FRS. London: Adolphus Richter, 1834, 2: pl. 41, fig. 2.)

Chrysolophus amherstiae (Leadbeater, 1829) Lady Amherst’s Pheasant

Phasianus Amherstiæ Benjamin Leadbeater. “On an Undescribed Species of the Genus Phasianus.” Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 16, pt. 1 (1829): 129–131, 129, pl. 15.

Chrysolophus Amherstiæ G. R. Gray. List of the Specimens of Birds in the Collection of the British Museum. Pt. 5, Gallinæ. London: Trustees [of the British Museum], 1867:30.

Pavo Linnaeus, 1758

Pavo Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:156.

Pavo cristatus Linnaeus, 1758 Indian Peafowl

[Pavo] cristatus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1:156.